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Discover everything you need to know about Comoros

Hire in Comoros at a glance

Here ares some key facts regarding hiring in Comoros

Comoro Franc
GDP growth
GDP world share
Payroll frequency
Working hours
39 hours/week

Overview in Comoros

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The Comoros Islands, a volcanic archipelago in the Indian Ocean, consist of three main islands: Grande Comore, Mohéli, and Anjouan. Initially settled by Austronesian seafarers and later Bantu-speaking peoples, the islands were influenced by Arab traders in the 8th century, integrating into the Swahili trade network. Colonized by France in the 19th century, Comoros gained independence in 1975, though Mayotte remains a French territory. The country has faced political and economic instability, including frequent coups.

Comoros has a tropical marine climate and a population of around 860,000, predominantly Muslim, with a young demographic. The economy is heavily reliant on agriculture, with key exports including vanilla, cloves, and ylang-ylang. Despite its natural beauty and tourism potential, economic development is hampered by inadequate infrastructure, high poverty, and limited natural resources. The workforce is largely engaged in agriculture and the informal sector, with a significant gender gap in employment. Challenges include a lack of skilled labor in modern sectors and limited access to quality education, impacting the potential for economic growth.

Taxes in Comoros

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In Comoros, employers are required to contribute to the Caisse de Retraite des Comores (CRC) for various social security benefits, including a 12% contribution for pensions, 3% for family allowances, 1% for maternity allowance, and 2.25% for sickness insurance, with some contributions shared with employees. Additionally, work accidents insurance rates vary by industry risk. Employers also handle withholding and remitting employee contributions and taxes, including income tax under a progressive system with a basic exemption of about KMF 150,000 annually.

Businesses may face other taxes like a minimum lump-sum tax of 1.5% of the previous year's turnover and a skills development levy based on payroll size. Consumption Tax at a standard rate of 10% applies to most services, with certain exemptions and reduced rates for specific sectors.

The Comoros Investment Code offers incentives such as reduced corporate income tax rates and exemptions on import duties for eligible investment projects, particularly in priority sectors like tourism and agriculture. Special Economic Zones offer additional benefits, and there are no exchange controls, facilitating the repatriation of profits. Businesses must register and comply with tax requirements, and applying for incentives involves submitting a detailed proposal and undergoing a review process.

Leave in Comoros

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  • Annual Leave: In the Union of the Comoros, employees are entitled to 24 working days of paid annual leave per year, accruing at a rate of two days per month of service, as per Article 133 of the Labor Code.

  • Eligibility: All employees are eligible for annual leave regardless of their length of service.

  • Scheduling: Vacation timing should be agreed upon mutually by the employer and employee, considering both the need for rest and operational requirements.

  • Compensation: Employees receive their regular wages during their annual leave period.

  • Collective Agreements: These may provide more generous vacation entitlements than the Labor Code.

  • Record Keeping: Employers must maintain accurate records of vacation accrual and usage.

  • Holidays in Comoros:

    • Secular: New Year's Day (January 1), Independence Day (July 6).
    • Muslim: Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, and Mawlid an-Nabi, with dates varying based on the lunar calendar.
    • Other: Labor Day (May 1), observed by some organizations.
  • Other Types of Leave:

    • Sick Leave: Paid sick leave varies from 1 to 6 months depending on the length of service, with a medical certificate usually required.
    • Maternity Leave: 14 weeks of fully paid leave, available to women employed for at least six months.
    • Bereavement and Family Event Leave: Time off may be granted for family-related events, though specifics may vary.

Benefits in Comoros

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Employee Benefits in Comoros

In Comoros, employees are entitled to several mandated benefits, including:

  • Paid Leave: Employees accrue a minimum of two and a half days of paid annual leave per month after a year of service, with the amount increasing with seniority. Sick leave is available for up to six months with a medical certificate, and women receive 14 weeks of paid maternity leave, plus one hour daily for nursing for 15 months post-childbirth.

  • Overtime Compensation: Employees working overtime receive additional pay at escalating rates: 15% for the first 8 hours, 30% for the next 8 hours, and 40% for hours beyond 16, up to 60 hours per week.

  • National Holidays: Employees are entitled to paid time off during national holidays.

  • Health Insurance and Retirement Plans: While not mandated, some employers offer health insurance and private pension plans, which can be significant given the low coverage of health insurance and reliance on out-of-pocket healthcare payments in the country.

  • Additional Benefits: Employers may also provide transportation allowances, meal vouchers, family benefits, bonuses, and training opportunities.

The government is working towards establishing a national health insurance system to achieve universal health coverage, but currently, health insurance penetration remains low. Employees contribute to the national social security system (CNSS), which provides a pension upon retirement, supplemented optionally by private pension plans offered by some employers.

For the most accurate and detailed information, consulting the official Comorian labor code or legal counsel is recommended.

Workers Rights in Comoros

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Understanding Employment Termination and Discrimination Laws in Comoros

In Comoros, employment termination must be based on valid reasons as outlined in the Comorian Labor Code, including serious misconduct, incapacity, or economic/technological reasons. Dismissal is prohibited on grounds such as race, gender, religion, and several other protected characteristics.

Notice and Severance Requirements:

  • Employees must generally be given notice before termination, ranging from 1 week to 2 months based on the length of service.
  • Severance pay is due except in cases of serious misconduct, with amounts determined by the employee's service length and salary.

Discrimination Protections:

  • Discrimination in employment is illegal on various grounds including race, gender, religion, and health status.
  • Employers are required to implement anti-discrimination policies and ensure a discrimination-free workplace.

Workplace Standards:

  • The legal workweek is capped at 40 hours, with specific provisions for overtime and rest periods.
  • Employers must provide a safe work environment, including necessary training and personal protective equipment.

Enforcement and Redress:

  • The Labor Inspectorate and courts are available for employees to address grievances related to discrimination or workplace safety.
  • The Ministry of Employment, Labor, Vocational Training, and Women's Entrepreneurship oversees the enforcement of labor laws.

Comoros adheres to international labor standards, ensuring protections against discrimination and unsafe work conditions, while also outlining clear guidelines for lawful employment termination.

Agreements in Comoros

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In Comoros, employment contracts are not mandated to follow a specific format but must adhere to legal regulations. The primary types of contracts include:

  • Permanent Contracts (Indefinite-Term Contracts): These do not have a fixed end date and continue until terminated by either party.
  • Fixed-Term Contracts: Used for temporary, project-based, or seasonal work, these specify a set duration of employment.
  • Trial Period Agreements: Allow for a probationary period of up to six months to assess the suitability of the employee for the job, which can then transition into a permanent or fixed-term contract.

Key elements that should be included in employment agreements are:

  • Identification of the parties involved.
  • Detailed job description and duties.
  • Terms of employment specifying the type of contract.
  • Remuneration details including salary, benefits, and allowances.
  • Working hours, overtime regulations, and compensation.
  • Termination clauses outlining the grounds and required notice periods.
  • Confidentiality and intellectual property rights.
  • Dispute resolution mechanisms.

Additionally, the employment agreement may include probationary periods with specific conditions agreed upon by both parties, focusing on performance evaluations and the possibility of termination with shorter notice. Confidentiality and non-compete clauses can also be incorporated, though their enforceability may be limited and should be drafted to comply with broader legal principles.

Remote Work in Comoros

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In Comoros, the Labor Code does not specifically address remote work or various flexible work arrangements such as part-time work, flexitime, and job sharing, leading to legal uncertainties. Employers must navigate these gaps by potentially consulting legal counsel and creating detailed written agreements that outline the terms of employment, including work schedules, communication expectations, and performance metrics. These agreements should also cover equipment provision, internet costs, and other related expenses.

The country faces technological challenges, including limited internet access and unreliable electricity, which can impede the adoption of remote work. Employers need to assess the technological capabilities of their employees and possibly provide solutions to overcome these infrastructural issues.

General labor laws concerning minimum wage, overtime, and paid leave still apply to remote workers. Health and safety regulations also remain relevant, requiring employers to ensure safe home office environments, although specific guidelines are lacking.

Data protection is governed by Law No. 012-013/AU of 2013, mandating lawful processing and adequate security measures for employee data. Employers must ensure data security for remote workers, including using secure devices and connections, implementing access controls, and providing data security training.

Overall, while Comoros recognizes the potential benefits of remote work, the absence of explicit legal frameworks necessitates careful consideration and proactive measures by employers to comply with existing laws and ensure effective and secure remote work practices.

Working Hours in Comoros

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Comoros Working Hours and Regulations Overview:

  • Standard Working Hours: The legal working time in Comoros is capped at 40 hours per week for both public and private sectors, as per the "Comoros - Working time - 2011" report by the ILO. This typically translates to 8 hours per day over a five-day workweek.

  • Overtime: Exceeding the 40-hour limit is permissible under extraordinary circumstances with specific modalities needing consultation from the Superior Labour and Employment Council. Overtime work requires employee consent, except in urgent cases, and must be compensated, although specific rates are not detailed in the available resources.

  • Rest Periods and Breaks: While not explicitly mandated, common practice likely includes short breaks during the workday and a longer lunch break, with exact details best obtained from employer policies or industry-specific regulations.

  • Night Shift and Weekend Work: Details on regulations for night shifts and weekend work are sparse due to limited public access to the Comorian Labour Code. However, it is likely that night shifts involve overtime compensation and that there is at least one rest day per week, typically Sunday, with work on rest days requiring overtime pay or compensatory time off.

  • Access to Information: The primary source of labor regulations is the Comorian Labour Code, but it is not readily accessible online. Summaries by the ILO provide some insights, though they may not cover all specifics.


For the most accurate and detailed information, employees should refer to internal company policies or consult industry-specific regulations. Negotiations with employers about break schedules, overtime compensation, and work arrangements for night shifts or weekends are advisable based on individual and workload considerations.

Salary in Comoros

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Understanding competitive salaries in Comoros involves navigating a developing economy with limited data. As a Lower-Middle-Income Country, Comoros has a diverse workforce, with significant portions in agriculture and informal sectors, leading to varied salary expectations based on industry, experience, and location.

Sources for Salary Data:

  • Job Boards: Provide initial salary ranges and industry trends.
  • Networking: Offers insights through connections in professional circles.
  • Salary Surveys: Conducted by international HR firms, though not widely available.

Additional Compensation Factors:

  • Benefits: Include health insurance and paid time off.
  • Cost of Living: Essential for assessing lifestyle sustainability on offered salaries.
  • Career Growth Opportunities: Potential for advancement within companies.

Minimum Wage:

  • Set at 55,000 Comorian francs (KMF) per month, applicable nationwide, with the legislation established by a Ministerial Decree in 2003.

Additional Benefits:

  • Companies may offer performance-based bonuses, transportation, housing, and meal allowances, varying by industry and company size.

Leave and Social Security:

  • Mandated paid annual leave and employer contributions to social security are standard.

Payroll Practices:

  • Payment frequencies in Comoros are not universally mandated but typically include monthly and bi-weekly cycles, depending on the employer.

Legal and Contractual Considerations:

  • Employment contracts should detail payment frequencies and methods, crucial for understanding compensation fully.

In summary, determining competitive salaries in Comoros requires considering various sources and factors due to the scarcity of data and the diverse economic landscape.

Termination in Comoros

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In Comoros, the Labour Code does not specify fixed notice periods for employment termination but outlines general principles for both employer-initiated and employee-initiated terminations. Employers must provide written notice, although no specific duration is mandated. Employees, while not bound by the Labour Code to a notice period, often have stipulated notice periods in their contracts. Termination without notice is permissible in cases of serious misconduct. Industry-specific collective agreements may influence notice periods and severance pay, although severance pay is not clearly defined in the Labour Code. Employees and employers are advised to consult employment contracts, collective agreements, and legal experts for guidance on severance entitlements. The Labour Code protects against termination on discriminatory grounds and provides special protection for maternity leave, allowing termination by the woman without notice or indemnity within 15 months post-birth. The termination process requires written notice, an opportunity for the employee to respond, and in some cases, consultation with the Consultative Council of Labour and Employment, followed by payment of all dues.

Freelancing in Comoros

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In Comoros, distinguishing between employees and independent contractors is essential due to its implications on labor rights, social security, and tax obligations. Employees are under employer control, integrated into the company, economically dependent on their salary, and receive benefits like social security contributions. Independent contractors have more autonomy, multiple clients, and handle their own benefits and tax filings.

Key aspects of working as an independent contractor in Comoros include:

  • Contract Structures: It's important to have formal written agreements detailing the scope of work and compensation.
  • Negotiation Practices: Contractors should research market rates, highlight their value, and aim for mutually beneficial terms.
  • Common Industries: Tourism, IT, and creative sectors often hire freelancers.
  • IP Ownership: Generally, freelancers own the intellectual property they create unless a contract specifies otherwise.
  • Tax Obligations: Freelancers must register with tax authorities, file returns, and may need to handle VAT if exceeding certain thresholds.
  • Insurance Options: Independent contractors can opt for private health insurance and voluntary social security contributions.

Consulting legal and financial professionals is recommended to navigate these aspects according to Comorian law.

Health & Safety in Comoros

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Health and Safety Legislation in Comoros

Comoros' health and safety regulations are primarily outlined in the Constitution and the Labor Code (Loi n° 84-108/PR), with additional details provided by Law No. 88-015. These laws mandate employers to ensure workplace safety and require employees to adhere to safety protocols. The legislation covers various hazards including physical, chemical, biological, and ergonomic risks, and mandates the provision of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), health surveillance, and emergency procedures.

Enforcement and Compliance

The Ministry of Labor, supported by other agencies, is responsible for enforcing these regulations through inspections, improvement notices, and penalties for non-compliance. The Labor Code specifies the roles of employers in hazard identification, risk assessment, and implementing control measures. It also emphasizes the importance of training, first aid, emergency response, and incident reporting.

Workplace Inspections

Labor Inspectors and Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) Committees conduct inspections to ensure compliance, with the frequency and procedures of inspections varying based on several factors. Employers are obligated to correct identified hazards promptly to avoid further enforcement actions.

Accident Reporting and Investigation

Workplace accidents must be reported to relevant authorities like the Labor Inspectorate and the National Social Security Fund. The investigation process aims to uncover the root causes of incidents to prevent future occurrences. Workers injured in workplace accidents are entitled to compensation through the National Social Security Fund or civil liability claims.

Key Considerations

Employers are advised to keep detailed records of all workplace incidents and foster a strong safety culture. Workers are encouraged to report safety concerns, emphasizing the collective responsibility for maintaining a safe working environment.

Dispute Resolution in Comoros

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Labor courts in Comoros handle employment disputes, including unfair dismissal, wage issues, and discrimination. The process typically starts with a claim, followed by conciliation and, if necessary, a court hearing. Arbitration is an alternative, requiring agreement by the parties involved, and results in a binding award.

Comoros also conducts compliance audits and inspections across various sectors to ensure adherence to regulations, with consequences for non-compliance including financial penalties and legal action. Whistleblower protections exist but are limited and not always effectively enforced.

The Comorian Labor Code is influenced by ratified International Labor Organization conventions, addressing forced labor, child labor, discrimination, and freedom of association. However, challenges like limited enforcement resources and a large informal sector hinder full compliance with these standards.

Cultural Considerations in Comoros

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In Comoros, workplace communication is influenced by African, Arabic, and French cultures, emphasizing indirectness, formality, and non-verbal cues. Indirect communication is preferred to maintain respect and group harmony, avoiding direct confrontation especially with superiors. Formality is observed with the use of titles and honorifics, and building relationships is crucial before proceeding with business negotiations. Non-verbal communication such as body language and facial expressions plays a significant role, often conveying more than words.

Negotiations in Comoros are relationship-oriented, focusing on long-term partnerships and involving indirect language and metaphors. The hierarchical structure in Comorian businesses centralizes decision-making at the top, with a high respect for authority impacting team dynamics and leadership styles. Traditional leadership is paternalistic, though there is a shift towards more collaborative approaches among younger businesses.

Understanding local holidays is also important for conducting business. Comoros celebrates both secular and Islamic holidays, which can affect business operations. Key holidays include New Year's Day, Labour Day, National Day, and Islamic observances like Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha. During these times, businesses may close or operate on reduced hours, and scheduling meetings around these dates requires cultural sensitivity.

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