Norfolk Island is an Australian external territory situated in the Pacific Ocean between New Zealand and New Caledonia, 1,412 kilometers (877 miles) east of Australia's Evans Head and about 900 kilometers (560 miles) from Lord Howe Island. The Territory of Norfolk Island is made up of three islands: Norfolk Island, Phillip Island, and Nepean Island. According to the 2016 census, it has 1748 residents living in an area of around 35 km2 (14 sq mi). Kingston is its capital.
Norfolk Island is the major island of the Australian external territory of Norfolk Island, which is located in the Pacific Ocean between Australia and New Zealand, about 692 kilometers (430 miles) south of New Caledonia.
East Polynesians were the earliest known residents of Norfolk Island, but they had already left when Great Britain established it as part of its 1788 invasion of Australia. Except for an 11-year period between 15 February 1814 and 6 June 1825, when it was abandoned, the island functioned as a prisoner penal colony from 6 March 1788 until 5 May 1855. When descendants of the Bounty mutineers were evacuated from Pitcairn Island on June 8, 1856, permanent civilian habitation on the island started. Norfolk Island was given up to Australia as an overseas territory by the United Kingdom in 1914.
The evergreen Norfolk Island pine, which is native to the island, is a symbol of the island and is shown on its flag. The pine is an important export for Norfolk Island since it is a popular decorative tree in Australia (where two related species thrive) and across the globe.