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Congo (Democratic Republic of the)

Tax Obligations Detailed

Discover employer and employee tax responsibilities in Congo (Democratic Republic of the)

Employer tax responsibilities

In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), employers are obligated to make social security contributions to several institutions. These contributions cover pensions, occupational risks, family allowances, and employment-related programs.

Mandatory Social Security Contributions

Contributions to the Institut National de Sécurité Sociale (INSS) cover pensions, occupational risks, and family allowances. The pension contribution is 5% of the gross salary, occupational risks are 1.5% of the gross salary, and family allowances are 6.5% of the gross salary.

Contributions to the Office National de l'Emploi (ONEM) cover employment-related programs. The ONEM contribution is 0.2% of the gross salary.

Other Potential Employer Contributions

Employers may also be required to contribute a percentage of their payroll towards professional training programs. Additionally, employers might choose to offer additional benefits, such as health insurance or retirement savings plans, which may involve further contributions.

Calculation of Employer Contributions

Employer contributions are generally calculated as a percentage of the employee's gross salary. This includes base salary, allowances (within limits), bonuses, and benefits in kind (under certain conditions).

Payment and Reporting of Contributions

Employers typically file social security contributions monthly. Payment deadlines are set by the relevant social security institutions.

Penalties for Non-Compliance

Failure to comply with social security contribution requirements can result in significant penalties and fines. It's essential to stay up-to-date on contribution rates and deadlines.

Employers should remember that tax laws and regulations can change, so it's always recommended to consult with a local tax advisor or the relevant government authorities for the most accurate and up-to-date information. Employers may also need to consult with legal and social security experts to understand the full scope of their obligations.

Employee tax deductions

In the Democratic Republic of Congo, there are several mandatory and potential deductions from an employee's salary.

Mandatory Deductions

  • Income Tax (ImpĂ´t Professionnel sur les RĂ©munĂ©rations - IPR): This is a progressive tax on employment income. Tax rates range from 3% to 30%, with higher rates applying to higher income brackets.
  • Social Security Contributions (INSS): Employees contribute 5% of their gross salary to the National Social Security Institute (INSS) for pension, occupational risk, and family allowance coverage.

Other Potential Deductions

  • Exceptional Tax on Expatriate Salaries (IERE): This tax applies to certain expatriate employees and is calculated based on the IPR.
  • Voluntary Contributions: Employees may elect to have additional deductions made for things like retirement savings plans or private health insurance.

It's important to note that tax laws and regulations are subject to change. Consult with a local tax advisor for the most accurate and up-to-date information. The specific deductions an employee is subject to may vary based on factors like income level, expatriate status, and voluntary benefits.


In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), the standard Value Added Tax (VAT) rate is 16%. However, a reduced rate of 8% applies to certain necessities like food staples and utilities. Exports and some specific services may be zero-rated (0%).

VAT Liability in the DRC

Any individual or business providing taxable services within the DRC is generally liable for VAT. This applies regardless of their legal status or whether the services are provided regularly or occasionally.

Taxable Services

The DRC has a broad definition of taxable services. This includes most services provided within the country for consideration. Some common examples include:

  • Professional services (consulting, legal, accounting)
  • Technical services (repairs, maintenance)
  • Telecommunications services
  • Transportation services
  • Hospitality and tourism services
  • Rental and leasing of tangible property

Determining the Place of Supply for Services

The place of supply rules determine where a service is deemed to be supplied for VAT purposes. This is important for establishing whether DRC VAT applies to a transaction. Generally, services are considered supplied in the DRC if:

  • The service is physically performed in the DRC.
  • The service is used or exploited within the DRC.

Calculating VAT on Services

VAT on services is calculated by applying the relevant VAT rate (16% or 8%) to the taxable value of the service. The taxable value is typically the price charged for the service.

Invoicing and Recordkeeping

Businesses providing taxable services in the DRC are required to issue VAT invoices that meet specific requirements. They must also maintain detailed records of their sales and purchases for VAT purposes.

Filing VAT Returns and Payment

VAT returns must be filed monthly, by the 15th of the following month. VAT payments are also due by this deadline. Businesses with excess input VAT (VAT paid on purchases) over output VAT (VAT charged on sales) may carry forward the credit or request a refund in limited circumstances.

Tax incentives

The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) offers a variety of tax incentives to attract and encourage investment. These incentives range from reduced Corporate Income Tax (CIT) rates to temporary exemptions from various taxes for new businesses or those investing in specific sectors. Additionally, businesses may be eligible for accelerated depreciation allowances, which can reduce their taxable income in the earlier years of an investment.

Incentives for Special Economic Zones (SEZs)

The DRC has established Special Economic Zones (SEZs) to attract investment. Businesses operating within these zones can benefit from significant tax incentives. These include CIT exemptions for the first few years, followed by reduced rates for an extended period. Similar exemptions and reduced rates apply to dividend taxes. Furthermore, eligible businesses are exempt from customs duties on the import of equipment and raw materials.

Sector-Specific Incentives

The DRC also offers various tax incentives to promote investment in specific sectors. The mining sector, for instance, benefits from a range of incentives, including reduced CIT rates, exemptions from certain taxes, and the possibility of deducting specific provisions. Investments in agriculture may qualify for tax exemptions and reductions on imported equipment and materials. Businesses investing in tourism development may receive tax holidays and other incentives.

Eligibility and Application Process

To benefit from these tax incentives, businesses must fulfill certain criteria and conditions. These may include minimum investment thresholds, job creation targets, and export requirements. Applications for tax incentives are typically made to the National Agency for the Promotion of Investments (ANAPI).

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