Dominica, formally the Commonwealth of Dominica, is a Caribbean island republic. Roseau, the island's capital, is situated on the western half of the island. It is physically located in the Caribbean Sea as part of the Windward Islands chain in the Lesser Antilles archipelago. Dominica's nearest neighbors are two European Union and Eurozone component territories, the overseas departments of the French Republic, Guadeloupe to the northwest, and Martinique to the south-southeast. Dominica has a land area of 750 km2 (290 sq mi), and the highest peak is Morne Diablotins, which stands at 1,447 m (4,747 ft). According to the 2011 census, the population was 71,293 people.
The Arawak arrived from South America in the fifth century and was established on the island. By the 15th century, the Kalinago had supplanted the Arawak. Columbus is reported to have traveled over the island on November 3, 1493. It was subsequently colonized by Europeans, primarily by the French between the 1690s and 1763. The French brought enslaved West Africans to Dominica to work on coffee plantations. Following the Seven Years' War, Great Britain acquired control in 1763 and eventually adopted English as its official language. In 1978, the island declared itself a republic.
Dominica's natural nature has earned it the moniker "Nature Island of the Caribbean." It is the Lesser Antilles' youngest island, and it is still being produced by geothermal-volcanic activity, as indicated by the world's second-largest hot spring, Boiling Lake. The island is home to numerous unique flora, animals, and bird species, as well as beautiful mountainous rainforests. Some of the western coastal districts have xeric zones, while considerable rainfall occurs inland. The Sisserou parrot, sometimes known as the Imperial Amazon and found exclusively in Dominica, is the island's national bird and appears on the national flag, making Dominica one of only two sovereign governments with a purple flag. The country is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the United Nations, the Organization of American States, the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie, the Organisation of the Eastern Caribbean States, and the Non-Aligned Movement.