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Employee Rights and Protections

Explore workers' rights and legal protections in Chad


In Chad, the labor law outlines several situations where an employer may lawfully terminate an employment contract. These include economic or technological reasons such as restructuring, financial difficulties, or the introduction of new technology. An employer may also immediately dismiss an employee in the case of serious misconduct, such as willful insubordination, violence, theft, or serious negligence compromising company safety. Employment contracts with a specified end date naturally terminate upon reaching that date, and both the employer and employee may mutually agree to terminate the employment relationship.

Notice Requirements

Chad's Labor Code establishes the following notice periods that an employer must respect when terminating an employment contract:

  • For employees with at least one year of service, one month's notice is required.
  • For employees with at least three years of service, two months' notice is required.
  • For employees with less than one year of service or on a fixed-term contract, 15 days' notice is required.

It's important to note that in cases of gross misconduct by the employee, the employer may terminate employment without providing notice.

Severance Pay

Chadian law generally requires employers to provide severance pay to employees dismissed for reasons other than gross misconduct. The severance pay amount is calculated based on the employee's length of service:

  • For each year of service up to 10 years, the severance pay is 25% of one month's salary.
  • For each year of service beyond 10 years, the severance pay is 35% of one month's salary.

The primary legal framework governing employment relationships in Chad is the Labor Code of Chad (Loi n° 38/PR/96 du 11 décembre 1996 portant Code du Travail).


The Constitution of Chad serves as the basis for anti-discrimination legislation in the country. It outlines several key protected characteristics. These include origin, which covers race, ethnicity, nationality, and tribal affiliations. Sex is also a protected characteristic, prohibiting discrimination based on gender. Religion is another protected characteristic, safeguarding individuals from discrimination based on their religious beliefs and practices. Political opinion is also protected, preventing discrimination due to an individual's political views. Lastly, social position is a protected characteristic, providing safeguards against discrimination linked to social or economic status.

Redress Mechanisms

In Chad, there are several redress mechanisms available for cases of discrimination. The National Human Rights Commission (CNDH) is an independent body that is mandated to investigate discrimination complaints and seek solutions. Labor Courts have jurisdiction over discrimination disputes that arise in the workplace. In severe cases, acts of discrimination may be prosecuted as criminal offenses in Criminal Courts, with punishments including fines and imprisonment. This is particularly the case for hate speech that incites violence based on protected characteristics.

Employer Responsibilities

Employers in Chad have a legal obligation to prevent and address discrimination in the workplace. They have specific responsibilities that they must uphold. These include developing and implementing equal opportunity policies that promote non-discrimination and equal opportunities for all employees. They must also establish clear internal procedures for reporting and investigating discrimination complaints. Employers are also responsible for educating employees and managers about anti-discrimination laws, company policies, and appropriate conduct. Lastly, they must take proactive measures to create an inclusive workplace culture by celebrating diversity and fostering respect.

Working conditions

Chad's Labour Code provides the legal framework for working conditions in the country, covering aspects such as work hours, rest periods, and ergonomic requirements.

Work Hours

The legal maximum workweek in Chad is 39 hours, averaged over a defined period such as a month or a quarter. Work schedules can be implemented with flexible arrangements, but total working hours must comply with the 39-hour limit.

Rest Periods

Workers in Chad are entitled to a daily rest period of at least 24 consecutive hours, typically on Sundays. Specific regulations on breaks within the workday are not readily available, but common practice often includes short breaks throughout the day.

Ergonomic Requirements

While there isn't readily available information on detailed ergonomic requirements in Chad's Labour Code, general safety provisions likely apply. These provisions encourage employers to maintain a workplace that minimizes health risks associated with work activities.

Additional Considerations

Working hour standards and specific requirements may vary depending on the industry or sector. Therefore, consulting relevant sectoral regulations might be necessary for a more comprehensive picture. It's also worth noting that enforcement of Labour Code standards can be uneven due to resource constraints.

Health and safety

Chad places a high priority on worker safety and health, as reflected in its Labour Code and international commitments. This includes a range of key regulations, responsibilities for both employers and employees, and enforcement mechanisms.

Employer Obligations

The Labour Code outlines various health and safety obligations for employers in Chad:

  • Risk Assessment and Prevention: Employers are required to identify workplace hazards, assess risks, and implement preventive measures to minimize accidents and occupational illnesses.
  • Safe Work Environment: Employers are responsible for providing a safe work environment. This includes maintaining equipment, ensuring proper ventilation and lighting, and offering personal protective equipment (PPE) when necessary.
  • Training and Information: Employers must train employees on health and safety procedures specific to their job roles and provide general safety awareness training.
  • Emergency Preparedness: Employers are required to develop and implement emergency response plans for fires, accidents, and other potential hazards.
  • Medical Surveillance: In certain high-risk occupations, employers might be required to provide health monitoring or medical surveillance for employees.

Employee Rights

Employees in Chad also have important health and safety rights:

  • Safe Work Environment: Employees have the right to work in a safe environment free from unreasonable risks to their health and safety.
  • Information and Training: Employees have the right to be informed about potential hazards and receive adequate training on health and safety protocols.
  • Refusal of Unsafe Work: Employees have the right to refuse work they believe is unsafe or poses a health risk, provided they have reasonable justification for their refusal.
  • Reporting Unsafe Conditions: Employees can report unsafe work conditions or practices to their supervisors or relevant authorities.

Enforcement Agencies

The primary responsibility for enforcing health and safety regulations in Chad falls on:

  • Ministry of Labour: This body conducts workplace inspections to ensure compliance with health and safety standards. Authorized inspectors have the power to issue citations and impose fines for violations.
  • National Social Security Fund (CNSS): The CNSS plays a role in workplace safety through its accident insurance programs and potentially through collaborating with the Ministry of Labour on inspections, especially for companies registered with the CNSS.

Additional Considerations

  • International Standards: Chad has ratified International Labour Organization (ILO) Convention 81 concerning Labour Inspection. This demonstrates a commitment to upholding basic safety and health standards at work.
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