Indonesia, formally the Republic of Indonesia, is a Southeast Asian and Oceanian republic located between the Indian and Pacific seas. It consists of over 17,000 islands, including Sumatra, Java, Sulawesi, and parts of Borneo and New Guinea. At 1,904,569 square kilometers, Indonesia is the world's biggest island nation and the 14th-largest country by area (735,358 square miles). Indonesia is the world's fourth-most populous nation, with approximately 270 million inhabitants, and the most populous Muslim-majority country. Moreover half of the country's population lives in Java, the world's most populated island.
Indonesia is a presidential republic with a legislature that is elected by the people. It is divided into 34 provinces, five of which have special status. Jakarta, the country's capital, is the world's second-most populated metropolitan region. Indonesia has marine borders with Singapore, Vietnam, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, Palau, and India, as well as land borders with Papua New Guinea, East Timor, and the eastern half of Malaysia (Andaman and Nicobar Islands). Despite its massive population and heavily inhabited regions, Indonesia boasts extensive tracts of wilderness with one of the greatest levels of biodiversity on the planet.
Since at least the 7th century, when Srivijaya and subsequently Majapahit dealt with groups from mainland China and the Indian subcontinent, the Indonesian archipelago has been a lucrative trading zone. From the early years, local monarchs progressively assimilated foreign influences, and Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms prospered. Islam was imported by Sunni tradesmen and Sufi teachers, whereas Christianity flourished through European colonization. Although the Portuguese, French, and British controlled at various times, the Dutch were the dominant colonial power for most of their 350-year stay in the archipelago. The notion of "Indonesia" as a nation-state arose in the early twentieth century, eventually culminating in the announcement of Indonesian independence in 1945. However, after an armed and diplomatic battle between the two, the Dutch would not recognize Indonesia's sovereignty until 1949.
Indonesia is home to hundreds of diverse native ethnic and linguistic groups, the biggest of which is Javanese. With the slogan "Bhinneka Tunggal Ika" ("Unity in Variety," literally "many, yet one"), a common identity has emerged, characterized by a national language, cultural diversity, religious plurality among a Muslim-majority population, and a history of colonization and revolt against it. Indonesia's economy is the world's 17th biggest by nominal GDP and 7th largest by PPP. It is a regional power and a middling power in international affairs. The nation is a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement, Association of Southeast Asian Nations, East Asia Summit, and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, as well as the United Nations, World Trade Organization, and G20.