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Sweden is a Scandinavian nation in Northern Europe. It shares borders with Norway to the west and north, Finland to the east, and Denmark to the southwest through a bridge-tunnel over the resund. Sweden is the biggest nation in Northern Europe, the third-largest country in the European Union, and the fifth largest country in Europe, with 450,295 square kilometers (173,860 square miles). Stockholm is the capital and biggest city. Sweden has the greatest population among the Nordic nations, with 10.4 million people, with a low population density of 25.5 residents per square kilometer (66/sq mi). Swedes reside in urban areas, which account for 87 percent of the total land area. The middle and southern halves of the nation have the largest concentration.
Sweden is located in the Fennoscandia region. Because of the substantial ocean impact, the climate is often moderate for its northern latitude. Despite its latitude, Sweden gets mild continental summers due to its location between the North Atlantic, the Baltic Sea, and massive Russia. Because of the huge latitudinal difference, the overall temperature and surroundings change drastically from south to north, and most of Sweden has consistently cold and snowy winters. The south of Sweden is mostly agricultural, but the north is heavily wooded and home to a section of the Scandinavian Mountains.
Since prehistoric times, Germanic peoples have inhabited Sweden, coming into history as the Geats (Swedish: Götar) and Swedes (Svear) and forming the sea peoples known as the Norsemen. During the early 12th century, Sweden became an independent state. After the Black Death in the middle of the 14th century destroyed nearly a third of the Scandinavian population, the Hanseatic League's supremacy in Northern Europe posed an economic and political danger to Scandinavia. This resulted in the formation of the Scandinavian Kalmar Union in 1397, from which Sweden withdrew in 1523. When Sweden joined the Protestant side in the Thirty Years' War, an expansion of its borders started, and the Swedish Empire was founded. Until the early 18th century, this was one of Europe's major powers. Swedish lands beyond the Scandinavian Peninsula were progressively lost over the 18th and 19th centuries, culminating in Russia's acquisition of modern-day Finland in 1809. Sweden was last actively engaged in a war in 1814 when Norway was forcibly forced into a personal union, which was amicably dissolved in 1905. Sweden has remained at peace since then, with an official policy of neutrality in international affairs. Sweden celebrated 200 years of peace in 2014, surpassing even Switzerland's peace record. Sweden was technically neutral throughout both World Wars and the Cold War, although Sweden has openly pushed toward NATO collaboration since 2009. Sweden declared its intention to bid for NATO membership in 2022.
Sweden is a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary democracy, with the 349-member unicameral Riksdag wielding legislative authority. It is a unitary state comprised of 21 counties and 290 towns. Sweden maintains a Nordic social welfare system that provides its residents with universal health care and tertiary education. It boasts the world's tenth-highest per capita income and rates extremely high in terms of quality of life, health, education, civil rights protection, economic competitiveness, income equality, gender equality, prosperity, and human development. Sweden joined the European Union on January 1, 1995, but voted against joining the Eurozone in a referendum. It is also a member of the United Nations, Nordic Council, Council of Europe, World Trade Organization, and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD).
After one year of employment, employees are entitled to 25 days of paid vacation every year. Vacation days can be saved for up to five years once they've been accumulated.
Vacation compensation makes for 12% of an employee's annual gross wage.
Sweden recognizes thirteen public holidays.
For the first 14 days of sick leave, an employer is liable for paying 80% of an employee's wages.
Employers must report to the Swedish Social Insurance Office after 14 days, and employees must apply for benefits. On the fifteenth day, social insurance begins to pay for sick leave.
Mothers are entitled to 240 days of paid leave, which can begin 60 days before the due date.
Fathers in Sweden are entitled to 240 days of paid leave.
Swedish parents are entitled to 480 days of paid parental leave, with 90 of those days reserved for each parent. Except for the first 10 days after the delivery, leave should not be taken at the same time. The whole 480 days are offered to single parents.
Employees in Spain are entitled to ten days of bereavement leave.
Employers must have a legitimate reason for dismissing an employee.
Prior to terminating an employee, the employer must attempt to place the employee in an other position within the organization.
Employers who have more than five employees are required to notify the Employment Service. Additionally, businesses are required to deal with relevant trade unions.
Following talks, the employer must deliver a written and in-person notice of termination. If this is not practicable, a registered letter to the employee's address may be sent.
In Sweden, notice periods are governed by employment contracts, collective bargaining agreements, or the Employment Protection Act. When the employer initiates the termination and there is a collective bargaining agreement, the notice periods should be agreed upon and stated in the employment contract. One month is the most common notice period. However, in the absence of a collective bargaining agreement, the notice period varies according to the length of employment. If the employment relationship is less than two years, at least one month's notice is required. Employees who have worked for more than two years but less than four years are entitled to a two-month notice period. If an employee has worked for the company for more than four but less than six years, they are entitled to a three-month notice period. Employees who have worked for the company for more than six years but less than eight years are entitled to a four-month notice period. Employees who have worked for the company for more than eight years but less than ten years are entitled to a five-month notice period. If the employee has worked for the company for more than ten years, they are entitled to a minimum of six months notice. Employers may also dismiss employees without cause if they have engaged in egregious misconduct. When the employee initiates the termination and there is a collective bargaining agreement, the notice period should be agreed upon and stated in the employment contract. One month is the most common notice period. However, in the absence of a collective bargaining agreement, the notice period is one month under the Employment Protection Act.
Sweden does not have a statutory probationary period.
While employers are not required to pay severance pay, it may be included in the employment agreement.
In Sweden, the standard work week is 40 hours spread over five days. Workers are entitled to a five-hour break after five consecutive hours of work and a one-and-a-half-hour break after every twenty-four-hour period.
Overtime hours should not exceed 48 in a four-week period, 50 in a month, or 200 in a year. Overtime rules should be spelled out in a collective bargaining agreement or employee contract, and are typically compensated through pay or leave.
For weekday overtime worked prior to 8 p.m., the overtime allowance is equal to the monthly salary divided by 94 for each hour worked. For overtime worked after 8 p.m. or on weekends, the monthly salary is divided by 72 for each hour worked. Employees who hold managerial or comparable positions are not eligible for overtime pay, as are employees who schedule their own work hours.
There is no national minimum wage in Sweden. Minimums are established via collective bargaining agreements negotiated by trade unions.
Sweden provides universal health care, with the healthcare system being mostly administered at the county and municipal levels. Although private health insurance is accessible, only a tiny proportion of Swedish citizens have it.
If an employee is a member of a union, the CBA may require that he or she get private health insurance. Private health insurance is utilized to bypass the queue of public health insurance and give cash upfront rather than paying out of pocket and waiting for public health insurance to repay them. In Sweden, this benefit is part of a packaged plan that also includes a pension and certain protective benefits.
Some employers provide food coupons, corporate vehicles, stock incentive programs, and/or additional vacation time
Private pension plans for both employers and employees are also extremely common in Sweden. Non-EU nationals working in Sweden are usually required to have private pension insurance in order to get a Swedish work visa. In Sweden, it is not obligatory for an employer to provide an additional pension, but it is quickly becoming a popular and desired supplementary perk. It is standard practice to provide workers with a private pension once they have completed their trial term. It is customary for them to set aside 5-10% of their monthly gross income.
Unless tax treaties or specific exclusions exist, resident legal entities must pay tax on their global revenue. Non-resident entities are taxed on income considered to have originated in Sweden.
From January 1, 2021, taxable income is subject to corporate tax at a fixed rate of 20.6 percent. Till 31 December 2018, the corporation tax rate was 22% (effective since 2013), and it will be 21.4 percent until 31 December 2020.
All corporate income is considered as business income.
Swedish residents are subject to both a municipal income tax and a national income tax.
If the income of the taxable person is less than SEK 523,200, the taxable person is exempt of the national income tax.
If the income of the taxable person is over SEK 523,200, the taxable person is subject to a 20 percent national income tax.
The municipal income tax is imposed on a flat rate of 32 percent.
Non-residents working in Sweden for a Swedish employer or a foreign employer with a permanent establishment (PE) in Sweden are taxed at source at a flat rate of 25%. When a pension is paid from a Swedish source to a person who is not a tax resident in Sweden, the same rate applies.
Non-residents working in Sweden for a non-Swedish employer who does not have a PE in Sweden are subject to Swedish taxation if the beneficiary of the employee's labor is a Swedish entity and the work is done under the direction and control of the Swedish entity. The tax rate is set at 25%. An exemption applies if the employee works in Sweden for fewer than 15 consecutive days and less than 45 total days in a calendar year.
The Swedish VAT system is in accordance with EU regulations. Most products and services are subject to a general VAT rate of 25%. Hotel accommodations, foodstuffs (excluding alcoholic beverages), restaurant meals, and low or non-alcoholic drinks (12 percent), as well as newspapers, magazines, books, e-books, passenger transportation, maps, musical notes, some cultural services, ski lift transportation, and so on, are all subject to reduced rates (6 percent ). Certain financial and insurance services are VAT-free.
VAT returns are submitted, and taxes are paid on a monthly or quarterly basis. If the VATable turnover exceeds 40 million Swedish kronor (SEK), VAT returns must be submitted monthly (estimated yearly sales excluding any reverse charge or import acquisitions). Companies with a VATable turnover of less than SEK 40 million must submit VAT quarterly. Companies with a VATable turnover of more than SEK 40 million must report VAT monthly. VAT is reported annually in the VAT return for businesses with a revenue of less than SEK 1 million, and these companies may also opt to submit VAT quarterly or monthly.
Citizens from countries other than the EU, in general, must apply for a work permit in order to work in Sweden. There are a few of exceptions to this rule. Citizens of Australia, Canada, Hong Kong, Japan, New Zealand, and South Korea between the ages of 18 and 30 may also apply for a one-year working vacation visa.
Citizens of certain countries must obtain a work permit and a visa for employment that lasts less than three months.
To be eligible for a work permit, you must have received an official job offer from a Swedish firm. The position must also be advertised for at least 10 days in the EU/EEA. It should also include employment conditions that are comparable to those established by Swedish collective agreements or those that are usual within the profession or sector. Before taxes, the minimum monthly wage should be SEK 13,000 per month.
In addition, you must have a valid passport in your native nation.
Employment contracts may be either oral or written, however it is highly advised that all employment contracts be in writing. A written contract does not have to have any particular form, however employment contracts often include the following information:
Names and addresses of both the employer and the employee
The start date of the employee's employment.
The work environment
The employee's job title and responsibilities
Whether the contract is indefinite or fixed-term, as well as the contract's term, if it is fixed-term.
The duration of the probation term, if one exists (the maximum time allowed is six months)
Contract termination notice periods
Salary and other components of the employee's pay
The yearly leave allotment of the employee
Typical working hours (per day or per week)
Any pertinent collective bargaining agreements are included.
There is no set length for assignments. This is usually indicated in the employment contract for fixed-term employments.
Once you've decided to incorporate in Sweden, you'll need to consider a number of aspects, including where you'll put your headquarters and which languages your workers will need to be fluent in. You should also think about your sector and any crucial pre-existing trade partnerships.
Because Sweden is made up of islands and coastal cities, picking on the best site is critical to the success of your new branch. The majority of the population speaks Swedish, however there are several Sami and Finnish-speaking settlements. However, a significant fraction of the population speaks English well. The nation has a progressive social culture, and many of its citizens are immigrants. As a result, Sweden is recognized for being open to outsiders and for embracing diversity.
A private limited liability corporation is the most prevalent kind of subsidiary. It will take around two weeks to formally establish this sort of Sweden subsidiary, and approximately four weeks to open bank accounts in the nation. The following are the stages to forming a limited liability company:
1. Articles of incorporation should be filed.
2. Register a business name
3. Fill up your tax forms
4. Establish a board of directors as well as a managing director.
5. Create procedures for both the board and the director.
6. Determine who has the authority to sign.
The subsidiary laws of Sweden varies depending on whether you organize as a private or public limited liability company.
A board of directors with at least one person is required for a private limited liability structure. If you have more than two directors, you must nominate at least one deputy director. Your board of directors will need at least one Swedish resident to serve as the company's agent for service of process. Private limited liability firms must also have a minimum share capital of 50,000 SEK to be started.
A public limited liability company must have a minimum share capital of 500,000 SEK and at least three board members. Subsidiary rules in Sweden require these entities to have a managing director and an auditor. A private limited liability business cannot sell shares to the general public, but a public limited liability corporation may.