Portugal, formally the Portuguese Republic (Portuguese: República Portuguesa [ʁɛˈpuβlikɐ puɾtuˈɣezɐ]), is a nation in Southwestern Europe with a mainland on the Iberian Peninsula and the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira. It has the westernmost point in continental Europe, and its Iberian section is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the west and south, and Spain to the north and east, the only nation having a land border with Portugal. Its two archipelagos are divided into two independent areas, each with its own regional administration. The capital and biggest city is Lisbon.
Portugal is the Iberian Peninsula's and Europe's longest continuously existent nation-state, with its land constantly populated, conquered, and fought over since ancient times. It was inhabited by pre-Celtic and Celtic peoples, visited by Phoenicians, Carthaginians, and Ancient Greek merchants, and governed by the Romans, who were followed by Suebi and Visigothic Germanic invaders. Following the Moorish conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, the majority of its area became part of Al-Andalus. Portugal was founded as a nation during the early Christian Reconquista. The County of Portugal, founded in 868, rose to prominence with the Battle of So Mamede (1128). Following the Battle of Ourique (1139), the Kingdom of Portugal was established, and independence from León was confirmed by the Treaty of Zamora (1143).
Portugal developed the first worldwide maritime and commercial empire in the 15th and 16th centuries, becoming one of the world's leading economic, political, and military powers. During this time, known now as the Age of Discovery, Portuguese explorers pioneered marine exploration by discovering what would become Brazil (1500). During this period, Portugal monopolized the spice trade, divided the globe into four hemispheres with Castile, and extended the empire with military conquests in Asia. However, by the 18th century, events such as the 1755 Lisbon earthquake, the country's occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and Brazil's independence (1822) had resulted in a considerable decline in Portugal's previous affluence. This was followed by a civil war over royal succession between liberal constitutionalists and conservative absolutists that lasted from 1828 until 1834.
The 1910 revolution ousted Portugal's several centuries-old monarchy, establishing the democratic but unstable Portuguese First Republic, which was ultimately replaced by the authoritarian Estado Novo administration. After the Carnation Revolution (1974), which ended the Portuguese Colonial War, democracy was restored. Almost all of its foreign possessions gained independence soon after. The surrender of Macau to China in 1999 marked the end of one of history's longest-running colonial empires.
Portugal has left a strong cultural, architectural, and linguistic impact over the world, with around 250 million Portuguese speakers worldwide. It is a developed nation with a sophisticated economy and good living standards. It also rates well in terms of tranquility, democracy, press freedom, stability, social growth, prosperity, and English competence. Portugal is a member of the United Nations, the European Union, the Schengen Area, and the Council of Europe (CoE), as well as NATO, the eurozone, the OECD, and the Community of Portuguese Language Countries.