Oman, formally known as the Sultanate of Oman (Arabic: سلْطنةُ عُمان Salṭanat(u) ʻUmān), is a nation in Western Asia. It is located on the Arabian Peninsula's southern coast and crosses the Persian Gulf. Oman has land borders with Saudi Arabia, the UAE, and Yemen, as well as marine borders with Iran and Pakistan. The Arabian Sea on the southeast and the Gulf of Oman on the northeast comprise the shore. The United Arab Emirates surrounds the Madha and Musandam exclaves on all sides, with the Strait of Hormuz (which it shares with Iran) and the Gulf of Oman marking Musandam's coastline limits. Muscat is the capital and biggest city of Oman.
The Omani Sultanate was an empire from the 17th century, competing for power in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean with the Portuguese and British empires. Omani influence or dominance reached its apex in the nineteenth century, extending over the Strait of Hormuz to modern-day Iran, Pakistan, and as far south as Zanzibar. When the sultanate's strength collapsed in the twentieth century, it came under the control of the United Kingdom. For almost 300 years, the two empires' connections were founded on mutual benefit. The United Kingdom recognized Oman's geographic significance as a commercial center, securing their commerce routes in the Persian Gulf and Indian Ocean and protecting their empire on the Indian subcontinent. Muscat was formerly the Persian Gulf region's main trade port.
From 1970 until his death on January 10, 2020, Sultan Qaboos bin Said was the hereditary ruler of the kingdom, which is an absolute monarchy. The son of the Sultan is customarily proclaimed as the next monarch under Oman's procedures for succession to the sultanic throne. Sultan Qaboos bin Said was a childless man. In a letter, Qaboos bin Said chose his cousin, Haitham bin Tariq, as his successor, and the sultanic family acknowledged him as the next Sultan of Oman.
Oman, once a maritime empire, is the Arab world's oldest continuously sovereign state. It is a member of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, the Arab League, the Gulf Cooperation Council, the Non-Aligned Movement, and the United Nations. It has the 22nd largest oil reserves in the world. In 2010, the United Nations Development Programme named Oman the world's most improved country in terms of development during the previous 40 years. Tourism and the trade of fish, dates, and other agricultural products contribute to its economy. According to the Global Peace Index, Oman is classified as a high-income economy and ranks as the 73rd most peaceful nation in the world as of 2021.