Namibia, formally the Republic of Namibia, is a Southern African nation. The Atlantic Ocean forms its western boundary. It is bordered to the north by Zambia and Angola, to the east by Botswana, and to the south and east by South Africa. Although it does not border Zimbabwe, the Botswanan right bank of the Zambezi River divides the two nations by less than 200 meters (660 ft). Following the Namibian War of Independence, Namibia obtained independence from South Africa on March 21, 1990. Windhoek is the country's capital and biggest city. Namibia belongs to the UN, the Southern African Development Community (SADC), the African Union (AU), and the Commonwealth of Nations.
Namibia, the driest nation in Sub-Saharan Africa, has been inhabited by the San, Damara, and Nama people since prehistoric times. Immigrating Bantu peoples came in the 14th century as part of the Bantu expansion. Since then, Bantu tribes, the greatest of which is the Ovambo, have dominated the country's population, constituting a majority since the late nineteenth century.
The Cape of Good Hope, then a British colony, seized the port of Walvis Bay and the outlying Penguin Islands in 1878; they became part of the new Union of South Africa when it was formed in 1910. The German Empire took control of the majority of the region in 1884, establishing a colony known as German South West Africa. It improved agriculture and infrastructure. It committed genocide against the Herero and Nama people between 1904 and 1908. German authority came to an end in 1915 when South African soldiers defeated them. Following the conclusion of World War I, the League of Nations assigned control of the colony to South Africa in 1920. South Africa enforced its laws, including racial classifications and norms, as a Mandatory authority. With the National Party voted to power in 1948, South Africa implemented apartheid in what was then known as South West Africa.
Uprisings and demands for political representation by local African political activists seeking independence in the late twentieth century led in the UN acquiring direct responsibility for the region in 1966, while South Africa retained de facto sovereignty. The southwest Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO) was recognized by the UN in 1973 as the official representation of the Namibian people; the party is led by the Ovambo, who constitute a huge majority in the area. In 1985, South Africa created an interim government in Namibia as a result of the ongoing guerrilla conflict. In 1990, Namibia gained complete independence from South Africa. However, South Africa retained possession of Walvis Bay and the Penguin Islands until 1994.
Namibia is a stable multi-party parliamentary democracy with a population of 2.55 million people. Agriculture, tourism, and the mining industry – which includes mining for gem diamonds, uranium, gold, silver, and base metals – constitute the foundation of its economy, while manufacturing is a minor contributor. The Namib Desert, from which the nation derives its name, has resulted in Namibia becoming one of the world's least densely inhabited countries.