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Mauritania, officially the Islamic Republic of Mauritania (Arabic: الجمهورية الإسلامية الموريتانية), is a sovereign state in Northwest Africa. It is bounded on the west by the Atlantic Ocean, on the north and northwest by Western Sahara, on the northeast by Algeria, on the east and southeast by Mali, and on the southwest by Senegal. Mauritania is Africa's tenth biggest nation, with the Sahara covering 90 percent of its land area. The majority of the country's 4.4 million people reside in the temperate south, with around one-third concentrated in the capital and biggest city, Nouakchott, on the Atlantic coast.
The name of the nation is derived from the ancient Berber state of Mauretania, which is situated in modern-day Morocco and Algeria. Berbers first settled in what is now Mauritania around the third century AD. In the seventh century, Arabs invaded the region, bringing Islam, Arab culture, and the Arabic language with them. Mauritania was colonized by France as part of French West Africa in the early twentieth century. It gained independence in 1960, but has subsequently been subjected to coups and military dictatorships. General Mohamed Ould Abdel Aziz staged the most recent coup in 2008, and he went on to win presidential elections in 2009 and 2014. Following the 2019 elections, which were seen as Mauritania's first peaceful change of power since independence, he was replaced by Mohamed Ould Ghazouani.
Mauritania is a cultural and political component of the Arab world, with Arabic being the only official language. French, reflecting its colonial background, is widely spoken and used as a lingua franca. The official religion is Islam, and the majority of the population are Sunni Muslims. Despite its dominant Arab character, Mauritanian society is multiethnic: the Bidhan, or "white moors," account for 30% of the population, while the Haratin, or "black moors," account for 40%. Both communities are a synthesis of Arab and Berber race, language, and culture. The remaining 30% of the population is made up of diverse Sub-Saharan ethnic groupings.
Mauritania's economy is built mostly on agriculture, cattle, and fishing, despite a wealth of natural resources such as iron ore and petroleum. Mauritania is well-known for its terrible human rights record, including the persistent use of slavery as a consequence of a historical caste structure between the Bidhan and the Haratin. It was the world's last nation to abolish slavery in 1981, and finally criminalized it in 2007.
Employees who have worked for at least one year are eligible for annual leave, which accrues at a rate of 1.5 days each month of employment. Employees who work outside of Mauritania earn three days of yearly leave every month of employment. Employees who have worked with the company for ten years are entitled to an extra day a month. Employees with 15 years of service are entitled to two additional days each month. Finally, employees who have worked for the company for more than 20 years are entitled to an additional three days of leave a month.
Employees are also entitled to ten days of unpaid family leave in the event of an emergency.
Mauritania observes the following public holidays:
New Year’s Day
Labor Day/May Day
Africa’s Liberation Day
Individual or group agreements govern sick leave.
Employees who are female are entitled to 14 weeks of paid maternity leave. After the birth, eight of those weeks must be taken. Mothers are also entitled to an extra day of vacation each year for each kid under the age of 14. For the first 15 months following childbirth, new moms are allotted one hour every day to breastfeed.
There is no statutory paternity leave.
Other than the already mentioned terms for maternity leave, there are no other provisions in the law in Mauritiana regarding parental leave.
An employment contract may be terminated at the end of the term (if the contract is for a specified duration), by the employer (with or without notice), by the employee, by mutual consent, upon the employee's death, or due to force majeure rendering the contract unusable.
Employers are often required to present an employee with a written explanation for their dismissal. If notice is required for dismissal, the notice period begins upon receipt of the written cause for termination.
Without notice, either the employer or the employee may end an employment contract during the probationary (trial) period.
In general, the notice period is set by the individual or specified in the collective bargaining agreement.
The probation period varies depending on the collective bargaining agreement.
There are no provisions in the law regarding severance payment.
In Mauritania, the standard workweek is 40 hours and days are eight hours.
Collective bargaining agreements govern overtime pay.
The current monthly minimum wage in Mauritania is 3,000 Mauritanian ouguiyas (30,000 old ouguiyas).
Employers and workers both pay to Mauritania's public healthcare system. Employers contribute a proportion of workers' gross monthly wages, while employees make a somewhat smaller contribution.
A probationary term, pay on yearly vacations, public holidays, sick leaves, maternity leave, paternity leave, and overtime pay are all mandated by law. Social security payments are sometimes included in statutory benefits.
Mauritanian businesses are taxed according to the territoriality concept. As a result, businesses that conduct their operations outside of Mauritania will not be taxed in Mauritania on their earnings. Foreign businesses (resident and non-resident) are liable to Mauritanian corporate income tax (CIT) for their Mauritanian source of gain, and profits from services and products exportation by Mauritanian enterprises are taxed in Mauritania.
The CIT rate is 25% of the net taxable profit or 2% of the income specified in article 8, excluding transfers and charge reversals if the latter amount is more than the former.
A minimum payment of 100,000 Mauritanian ouguiya is required for the regular genuine regime of profit businesses (MRU).
Mauritanian tax citizens are required to pay taxes on their global income. Foreign income, on the other hand, is not taxable in Mauritania if the person can demonstrate that it has already been taxed in another nation.
Non-residents are solely taxed on income earned in Mauritius.
For a taxable remuneration from MRU 6,000 to MRU 9,000, the tax rate is 15 percent.
For a taxable remuneration from MRU 9,000 to MRU 21,000, the tax rate is 25 percent.
For a taxable remuneration exceeding 21,000, the tax rate is 40 percent.
VAT at a rate of 16% is usually levied on sales of local products and services. Petroleum goods are subject to VAT at a rate of 20%. Telephony is subject to VAT at a rate of 18%. VAT is levied at a 0% rate on exports of goods and services.
The Mauritania visa policy is a collection of rules that international visitors must follow in order to enter the Islamic Republic of Mauritania. A visa is an official document/letter/stamp issued by the Immigration Office/Embassy/Consular of Mauritania that confirms your eligibility to enter or travel through Mauritania for a certain reason.
The Mauritania visa policy was established many years ago to govern international travel. However, the need for a visa to visit this Islamic country varies from person to person, nation to nation, even depending on the port of entry, and on a variety of other aspects such as the traveler's stay length and purpose of visit. These rules are critical for ensuring safe travel while minimizing damage to the tourist sector.
Citizens of the eight countries may visit Mauritania without a visa for up to 90 days under the Mauritania visa policy. Algeria, Côte d'Ivoire, Gambia, Libya, Mali, Niger, Senegal, and Tunisia are among them. All other nations need a visa to enter Mauritania for any purpose and for any length of time. They are, nonetheless, entitled to apply for a visa if their application is approved.
According to the Mauritania visa policy, visitors may get a variety of visas and travel authorizations based on their intended purpose of trip. Travelers may apply for both short-term and long-term visas. For the time being, foreigners who wish to travel for pleasure may get a tourist visa. Visa on arrival or eVisa are additional options for this. For people who want to come for business reasons, a business visa is available.
After determining which visa is appropriate for them, travellers must apply for a visa either online or at any of the Mauritanian embassies and consulates located across the world. It is entirely up to them to determine whether applicants are allowed to enter Mauritania under the Mauritania visa rules. They have the authority to reject an application on whatever basis they see proper.
Employment contracts in Mauritania should include information about:
Nature of employment
Duration of employment
Rights of the parties
Conditions of termination
Although pre-employment background checks are not required, many businesses choose to do them. If an employer chooses to do a background check, it must follow Mauritania's data privacy regulations.
In Mauritania, both fixed-term and indefinite-term contracts are recognized. Contracts with a fixed duration may be renewed twice.
There is no set length for assignments. This is usually indicated in the employment contract for fixed-term employments.
Not every corporation understands how to establish a Mauritania subsidiary based on geography and organization. Because various towns or areas in Mauritania may have their own relevant laws, your location influences the Mauritania subsidiary laws you must obey. If you're new to the nation, you may want to consult with an expert, accountant, or lawyer to assist you select the ideal site for your business.
Another thing to think about is the sort of subsidiary you want to create. Depending on your requirements, you may incorporate as a limited liability company (LLC), a public limited company, or a branch. Companies who establish as an LLC, for example, will have more flexibility in Mauritania and will be able to manage more commercial operations. A branch, on the other hand, does not afford the same amount of flexibility and is an excellent option for businesses that want to engage in just a few activities.
When establishing a Mauritania subsidiary, you must do the following steps:
1. Establish Articles of Association signed by someone with a power of attorney
2. Register with the tax and social security authorities
3. Provide statement of the holidays acquired per employee
4. Provide statement of cumulative salaries
5. Provide information on employees
Subsidiary laws in Mauritania differ by entity as well. If you opt to incorporate as an LLC, you will be able to take advantage of advantageous legislation for foreigners, but you must ensure that you follow the proper standards in order to be compliant. Mauritania LLCs, for example, must designate at least one director and one shareholder of any country.
To complete the incorporation procedure, you will also require $3,500 in minimum paid-up share capital. Because LLCs have a lot of leeway, you'll probably need to select a statutory auditor and produce yearly audited financial statements.