Kenya, formally the Republic of Kenya (Swahili: Jamhuri ya Kenya), is an East African nation. Kenya is the world's 48th biggest nation by area, with 580,367 square kilometers (224,081 square miles). Kenya is the 29th most populated nation in the world, with a population of more than 47.6 million people according to the 2019 census. Nairobi is Kenya's capital and biggest city, whereas Mombasa is its oldest, now second-largest city, and first capital. Kisumu City is Lake Victoria's third-largest city and an inland port. Nakuru and Eldoret are two more prominent urban centers. Kenya is the third-largest economy in Sub-Saharan Africa, behind Nigeria and South Africa, as of 2020. Kenya is bounded to the northwest by South Sudan, to the north by Ethiopia, to the east by Somalia, to the west by Uganda, to the south by Tanzania, and to the southeast by the Indian Ocean. Its geography, climate, and population range widely, from cold snow-capped mountaintops (Batian, Nelion, and Point Lenana on Mount Kenya) with vast surrounding forests, wildlife, and fertile agricultural regions to temperate climates in western and rift valley counties, as well as dry, less fertile arid and semi-arid areas and absolute deserts (the Chalbi Desert and Nyiri Desert).
The first inhabitants of Kenya were hunter-gatherers, such as the Hadza people of today. Cushitic speakers initially arrived in Kenya's lowlands between 3,200 and 1,300 BC, according to archaeological dating of accompanying artifacts and skeleton material, a period known as the Lowland Savanna Pastoral Neolithic. Around 500 BC, Nilotic-speaking pastoralists (ancestors of Kenya's Nilotic speakers) started migrating from present-day South Sudan into Kenya. Between 250 BC and 500 AD, Bantu people arrived on the shore and in the interior. The Portuguese Empire initiated European contact in 1500 AD, and effective colonization of Kenya occurred in the nineteenth century with European exploration of the interior. Kenya today arose from a British Empire protectorate founded in 1895 and the following Kenya Colony, which started in 1920. Numerous disagreements between the UK and the colony sparked the Mau Mau movement in 1952 and the proclamation of independence in 1963. Kenya remained a member of the Commonwealth of Nations after its independence. The current constitution was approved in 2010 to replace the 1963 constitution of independence.
Kenya is a presidential representative democratic republic, with elected politicians representing the people and the president serving as the country's head of state and administration. Kenya belongs to the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, COMESA, the International Criminal Court, and other international organizations. Kenya is a lower-middle-income economy, with a GNP of $1,840. Kenya is the biggest economy in eastern and central Africa, and Nairobi is a key regional economic center. Agriculture is the most important industry: tea and coffee are traditional cash crops, and fresh flowers are a rapidly rising export. Tourism, in particular, is a key economic engine in the service sector. Kenya is a member of the East African Community trade bloc, while it is classified as part of the Greater Horn of Africa by several international trade organizations. Kenya's greatest export market is Africa, followed by the European Union.