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Italy, formally the Italian Republic or the Republic of Italy, is a nation comprised of a peninsula bounded by the Alps and some neighboring islands, the area of which primarily corresponds to the eponymous geographical region. Italy is situated in Southern Europe, in the midst of the Mediterranean Sea; it is also considered a component of Western Europe. The nation is a unitary parliamentary republic with Rome as its capital and biggest city. It has a total geographical area of 301,230 km2 (116,310 sq mi) and borders France, Switzerland, Austria, Slovenia, and the enclaved microstates of Vatican City and San Marino. Campione is an Italian territorial exclave in Switzerland. Italy is the third-most populated member state of the European Union, with about 60 million people.
Italy has traditionally been home to a diverse range of peoples and civilizations due to its pivotal geographic position in Southern Europe and the Mediterranean. Beginning with the classical era, Phoenicians and Carthaginians established colonies mostly in insular Italy, Greeks established settlements in the so-called Magna Graecia of Southern Italy, and Etruscans and Celts inhabited central and northern Italy, respectively, in addition to the various ancient peoples dispersed throughout what is now modern-day Italy, the most predominant being the Indo-European Italic peoples who gave the peninsula its name. In the eighth century BC, an Italic tribe known as the Latins established the Roman Kingdom, which later became a republic governed by the Senate and the People. The Roman Republic originally conquered and integrated its Italian peninsula neighbors before extending and conquering areas of Europe, North Africa, and Asia. By the first century BC, the Roman Empire had established itself as the dominant power in the Mediterranean Basin, as well as a major cultural, political, and religious center, ushering in the Pax Romana, a period of more than 200 years during which Italy's law, technology, economy, art, and literature flourished.
Despite the fall of the Western Roman Empire and the Barbarian Invasions during the Early Middle Ages, by the 11th century, numerous rival city-states and maritime republics, primarily in northern and central Italy, had become prosperous through trade, commerce, and banking, laying the groundwork for modern capitalism. These mostly independent statelets served as Europe's main trading hubs with Asia and the Near East, often enjoying greater democracy than the larger feudal monarchies that were consolidating throughout Europe; however, part of central Italy was under the control of the theocratic Papal States, while Southern Italy remained largely feudal until the 19th century, partly due to a succession of Byzantine, Arab, Norman, Angevin, Aragonese, and other foes. The Renaissance started in Italy and extended across Europe, rekindling interest in humanism, science, exploration, and art. Italian culture thrived, generating world-renowned thinkers, artists, and polymaths. Italian explorers explored new ways to the Far East and the New World throughout the Middle Ages, helping to usher in the European Age of Discovery. Nonetheless, the emergence of trade routes that avoided the Mediterranean substantially weakened Italy's economic and political influence. Centuries of foreign invasion and involvement, as well as competition and infighting among Italian city-states, such as the Italian Wars of the 15th and 16th ages, left Italy politically fractured, and it was overrun and split throughout the centuries by many foreign European powers.
Rising Italian nationalism and cries for independence from foreign influence ushered in an era of revolutionary political turmoil during the mid-nineteenth century. Following a war of independence, Italy was nearly totally united in 1861, forming the Kingdom of Italy after centuries of foreign dominance and political disunity. From the late 1800s through the early 1900s, Italy quickly industrialized, mostly in the north, and established a colonial empire, while the south remained largely destitute and excluded from industrialization, fostering a vast and powerful diaspora. Despite being one of the victorious allied nations in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic and social instability, which eventually led to the creation of the Italian fascist dictatorship in 1922. Fascist Italy's involvement in World War II on the Axis side and against the Allies resulted in military loss, economic catastrophe, and occupation of Italy by Nazi Germany and the collaborationist Italian Social Republic. Following the emergence of the Italian Resistance, the ensuing Italian Civil War, and Italy's liberation, the nation abolished its monarchy, formed a democratic Republic, had a protracted economic boom, and became a highly developed country.
Italy has a developed economy. The country ranks ninth in terms of nominal GDP (third in the European Union), eighth in terms of national wealth, and third in terms of central bank gold reserves. It has a high standard of living in terms of life expectancy, quality of life, healthcare, and education. The nation is a big power with substantial responsibilities in regional and global economic, military, cultural, and diplomatic issues. Italy is a founding and leading member of the European Union, as well as a member of numerous international organizations such as the United Nations, NATO, the OECD, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the World Trade Organization, the Group of Seven, the G20, the Union for the Mediterranean, the Latin Union, the Council of Europe, Uniting for Consensus, the Schengen Area, and others. The nation has long been a worldwide center of art, music, literature, philosophy, science and technology, and fashion, and has tremendously affected and contributed to a wide range of sectors such as film, gastronomy, sports, jurisprudence, banking, and commerce. Italy boasts the most World Heritage Sites (58), a reflection of its cultural riches, and is the sixth most visited nation.
Employees will roll over accrued paid leave days through the next year, but they must be used by June 31st. Any PTO that is left over will be cashed out.
Employers have control over whether employees take leave. In addition, the arrangement should specify whether or not holidays should be carried over. The employee should take the following leave:
In the case of a worker order, you must be available for at least two weeks. or in the 18 months after the vesting year's end, the final two weeks. From the moment of hire, the leave matures during the working partnership.
PermessiEx-Festività (suppressed holidays) are granted to all employees regardless of seniority or the National Labour Agreement, and they are granted as a result of the abolition of four bank holidays. Employees are offered 32 hours of paid time to compensate for the days they may have been on vacation.
Employees who are in their third year of employment are eligible for Permessi ROL (reduction of working hours), which are 28 hours a year. They begin accruing 56 hours a year after their fifth year of work.
There are 11 national holidays and one regional holiday in Italy.
If a national holiday occurs on a Sunday, it is either rescheduled for the next day or paid in return.
The employee is entitled to a 100% salary for the first three days, which is paid by the boss. This is true for the first two diseases of the year; the third disease is covered at 66 percent, while the fourth illness is covered at 50 percent. The person is not covered for the first three days of sickness after that.
Between the fourth to the twenty-first day of the injury, the employee is entitled to 75 percent of his or her wages, with the government covering half and the company covering the other half.
From the 21st day forward, the employee is entitled to 100 percent, with the government covering 66 percent and the company covering the remaining.
Maternity leave is granted to mothers for a period of five months. Before giving birth, two months must be taken. The employee will be compensated in full. Employers make the charge and will later request an INPS refund of up to 80%.
For the first five months after a child's birth, fathers are entitled to ten days of paid leave and are paid 100% of their wages. As an alternative to the mother, an additional day of leave is available.
New fathers to give their boss 15 days' notice before going on leave.
The parent is entitled to three months of paternity leave following the birth of the infant if the mother does not take maternity leave (due to divorce, infirmity, or the father getting sole custody). If the mother is self-employed, certain laws apply as well.
In Italy, an employee can take up to 10 months of unpaid parental leave.
Paid permits, also known as "Permessi Retribuiti" are a special kind of paid leave that can only be used for particular purposes specified in each CCNL, the most important of which are:
A family member's death or serious illness;
Harassment by a friend of the family; and
Reasons related to family.
Employee firing is now prohibited under COVID-19 until June 30, 2021.
In Italy, the employee must be notified in writing. If a labor court rules that the termination was unjust, the company must either restore the employee or compensate the employee.
Employers are required to offer notice of termination for all forms of terminations, unless the termination is for grave disciplinary reasons. Notice periods may be specified in the collective bargaining agreement, or a payment in lieu of notice may be made. A contract of employment may be terminated in one of the following ways: resignation, employer dismissal (including for "good cause"), expiration of a defined period, mutual consent, or retirement.
If the employer initiates the termination, employees shall be given 30 days' notice, and managers will be given 60 days' notice. Employees shall receive 30 days' notice and managers will receive 45 days' notice if the termination is instigated by the employee.
Probationary periods may last up to six months for managers and up to two months for employees below the managerial level.
Employers in Italy are required to set aside funds for severance (TFR) for their employees, which must be paid out within six months of the employee's departure. The TFR is calculated by dividing the gross annual salary from January 1st to December 31st by 13.5 and subtracting taxable income (pension, social security) before multiplying by 50 percent. The final TFR amount is increased by an additional percentage determined by the National Statistical Institute.
The standard workweek is 40 hours spread across five days, and employees are not permitted to work more than 48 hours spread across seven days, including overtime, on an average basis over four months. Collective bargaining agreements may slightly alter these rules. Although there is no legal limit to the number of hours an employee can work in a single day, there is a practical one, as employees must take 11 consecutive hours of rest every 24 hours. Workers under the age of sixteen may not work more than seven hours per day, and workers between the ages of sixteen and eighteen may not work more than eight hours per day.
The amount of overtime an employee is permitted to work is generally determined by contract or collective bargaining agreement, but overtime cannot exceed 250 hours per year. Collective bargaining agreements establish pay rates for overtime and work on holidays. Night work (work performed between the hours of 12 a.m. and 5 a.m.) is limited to eight hours in a 24-hour period and is typically limited to 80 nights per year. Collective bargaining agreements may modify some of these terms.
In Italy, there is no minimum wage at the national or regional level, but a CBA (contract between an employer and employee) can force one. Employees are entitled to a salary that enables them to live comfortably. Even if your company does not comply with the minimum wage law, courts will look to a negotiated minimum wage as being a contractually agreed-upon rule.
While 13th-month and annual bonuses are not required by Italy's compensation laws, these bonuses are prevalent in the majority of CBAs. Many employers will offer employees a bonus before Christmas, and according to CBA regulations, companies that are subject to the law are required to pay employees 14th month salary during the summer months.
The National Health Service (SSN) manages national health insurance in Italy, and it is funded through direct taxation as well as indirect taxation by employers and employees. When you register with the Local Health Service, you will be given a social security number and a health card. The employee's health card entitles him or her to low-cost or no-cost treatment.
There is also the option of purchasing private health insurance. Individuals with private insurance can freely choose their own doctor and specialist, be treated at private hospitals, and so on. Many residents have private health insurance policies that cover the portion of medical bills not covered by social security.
Some employers offer allowances for company cars, cell phones, and meal vouchers. Training is frequently provided by high-tech companies.
Business Income Tax, IRES (Imposta sul reddito delle società), and Regional Production Tax, IRAP (Imposta regionale sulle attività produttive), apply to Italian corporate organizations. Italy has one of the highest corporate taxes in the European Union, with a current rate of 24 percent. The average tax rate in the EU is 21.3 percent.
Corporate income tax (IRES) is levied at a rate of 24%. Charitable foundations, religious organizations, and sports clubs, for example, are free from corporate tax.
The normal rate of regional tax (IRAP) is 3.9 percent; however, regional authorities have the authority to raise or reduce the standard rate of tax by up to 0.92 percent. Furthermore, different IRAP rates are applied on various sectors of the economy in each area. For banks and other financial institutions, for example, the rate is 5.57 percent in Abruzzo, Apulia, Lazio, Lombardy, Piedmont, and Veneto, but just 4.65 percent in Emilia-Romagna. The tax is computed differently than IRES, taking into account the cost of fixed-term employees (before 2016 the cost of every employee was counted). In determining the tax base for corporate income tax (IRES), up to 10% of regional tax (IRAP) is deducted.
All employees are subject to a progressive income tax known as IRPEF (Imposta sul reddito delle persone fisiche). The government sets the tax rate based on income, but regions may add an extra 0.7 percent to 3.33 percent. In addition to a regional income tax, each area may levy a municipal income tax ranging from 0.1 percent to 0.9 percent. Municipalities may also impose progressive tax rates based on the national income band.
The tax rate is 23% if the taxable individual earns between €0 and €15,000 per year.
The tax rate is set at 27 percent if the taxable individual earns between €15,000 and €28,000 per year.
If the taxable individual earns between €28,000 and €55,000, the tax rate is set at 38%.
If the taxable individual earns between €55,000 and €75,000, the tax rate is set at 41%.
If the taxable individual earns more than €75,000, the tax rate is set at 43%.
Value-added taxation (VAT) (Imposta sul valore aggiunto, abbreviated IVA) is a consumption tax levied at a fixed rate of 22 percent that has not altered in years. The Italian government lowered VAT rates to 10% for certain listed medicines and power supplies, non-exempt passenger transportation, admissions to cultural and entertainment events, hotels, and restaurants, and to 4% for listed food, beverages, and agricultural goods.
The Italian VAT system is a component of the European Union's value-added tax system. Specific market-supplied products, such as education, healthcare, hospitals, and public postal services, are legally exempt from VAT, as are specifically specified financial transactions, such as money transfers and business portion transfers. In the event of a taxable person (a person who has a VAT number), input VAT on purchases of goods and services linked to business activity is usually recoverable. Specific products are subject to further restrictions (e.g. cars, entertainment expenses).
Foreigners wishing to work in Italy must get a work visa, a national visa, or a D-Visa, which enables admission into the country within eight days of arrival. To remain in Italy, however, further authorisation (a residency permit - permesso di soggiorno) is necessary. All visa applications must be made via the corporate province's (Preffetura's) Immigration Office (Sportello Unico d'Immigrazione – SUI) using a Nulla Osta document.
The Italian government has a limited amount of granted work permits and only accepts work permit applications on a limited basis (for a few months every one or two years), depending on the state of the Italian labor market at the time. (Flussi's Decree.)
In Italy, an employment contract may be either oral or written, and there is no set format to follow, however written contracts are the standard. All fixed-term contracts must be in writing, and any probation period or non-competition restrictions must also be in writing. Furthermore, the employer is obligated to give the employee with a written statement revealing specific facts within 30 days of the commencement of work.
Employment contracts may be indefinite or for a set period of time. Fixed-term contracts may be for no more than 12 months and may be extended for up to 12 months if there is a compelling cause. A fixed-term contract may be renewed four times in a 24-month period.
Many aspects must be considered before launching your subsidiary. Italy is an ideal site to start a company since there are no special criteria for foreigners and travel to other European Union (EU) nations is simple. However, you must evaluate the sort of business you want to operate, the location of your headquarters, and if you already have any trade links. All of these elements might have an impact on your subsidiary arrangement.
The location of your subsidiary, in particular, may have a significant influence on how you run your firm. Distinct towns or areas often have different laws or regulations that you will need to be aware of before establishing your subsidiary.
The next step is to choose which sort of company structure is ideal for you. A societá a responsabilitá limitata (S.r.l.) is the most frequent subsidiary form, and it is similar to a private limited liability corporation. Although the decision ultimately relies on how active you want to be in Italy, a S.r.l. provides greater organizational flexibility and shareholder autonomy.
The following are the stages to forming a S.r.l.:
1. Before a public notary, execute a public deed of incorporation and business by-laws.
2. Make the registration tax payment.
3. Purchase business and accounting books.
4. Contribute to the post office current account the government grant tax.
5. Register the business with Comunicazione Unica.
6. Notify the competent Labor Office (DPLMO) whenever you hire new employees.
Subsidiary rules in Italy differ depending on the sort of company you establish. A S.r.l. needs a minimum investment capital of 10,000 euro, with at least 25% paid before registration. There is no minimum number of shareholders required to incorporate, and no Italy subsidiary regulations define where shareholders must reside or what nationality they must possess.
Subsidiaries of S.r.l. benefit from flexible management laws. In the Articles of Association or bylaws, shareholders may specify how the firm will be managed. They have the authority to nominate a managing director or a whole board of directors. When hiring non-EU nationals as directors, you must keep a few things in mind.
Every business must preserve books and records of its finances, including original papers supplied and received. These accounting documentation must be kept for a minimum of 10 years. Audits are not required for all Italian subsidiaries, but your S.r.l. will need one if you fulfill specific criteria for total assets, personnel count, and sales and services income.