The Isle of Man is a self-governing British Crown Dependency in the Irish Sea between the United Kingdom and Ireland. Queen Elizabeth II, the head of state, bears the title Lord of Mann and is represented by a Lieutenant Governor. The United Kingdom is in charge of the island's military defense.
Since before 6500 BC, humans have resided on the island. Irish missionaries following St. Patrick's teachings started populating the island in the 5th century AD, and the Manx language, a branch of the Goidelic languages, arose. King Edwin of Northumbria captured the Isle of Man, as well as much of Mercia, in 627. The thalassocratic Kingdom of the Isles, which comprised the Isle of Man, was created in the 9th century by Norsemen. Between 1099 and 1103, Magnus III, King of Norway from 1093 to 1103, ruled as King of Mann and the Isles.
Under the Treaty of Perth, King Magnus VI of Norway transferred his suzerainty over Mann to King Alexander III of Scotland in 1266. Following a period of alternating sovereignty by the Kings of Scotland and England, the island was transferred to the English Crown's feudal lordship in 1399. The lordship was restored to the British Crown in 1765, although the island did not become a part of the Kingdom of Great Britain in the 18th century, nor of its successors, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the current United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It has always maintained its internal autonomy. The Isle of Man Parliament, Tynwald, became the world's first national legislative body to grant women the right to vote in a general election in 1881, however this excluded married women.
The Mann economy benefits from its role as a tax haven and offshore financial center. Insurance and online gambling each account for 17% of GNP, with information and communications technology and banking accounting for 9% each. The Mann Government has outlined a policy that includes a "whole-island approach" to addressing the major issues of money laundering, financial crime, and terrorist funding. The Isle of Man is famous across the world for the TT Motorcycle Races and the Manx Cat, a breed with short or no tails. UNESCO designated the Isle of Man as a biosphere reserve in 2016.