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Haiti, officially the Republic of Haiti and historically known as Hayti, is a nation in the Caribbean Sea situated on the island of Hispaniola, east of Cuba and Jamaica and south of The Bahamas and Turks & Caicos Islands. It shares the western three-eighths of the island with the Dominican Republic. To the southwest is the little Navassa Island, which is claimed by Haiti but is challenged as a United States territory administered by the federal government. Haiti is 27,750 km2 (10,714 sq mi) in size, the third biggest nation by area in the Caribbean, and has an estimated population of 11.4 million, making it the Caribbean's most populated country. Port-au-Prince is the capital.
The indigenous Tano people, who originated in South America, first settled on the island. The first Europeans landed on December 5, 1492, during Christopher Columbus' first journey, which led him to assume he had discovered India or China. Later, Columbus established La Navidad, the first European outpost in the Americas, on what is now Haiti's northeastern shore. The island was claimed by Spain and renamed La Espaola, and it remained a part of the Spanish Empire until the early 17th century. However, due to conflicting claims and colonization by the French, the western section of the island was given to France in 1697 and renamed Saint-Domingue. French colonists created profitable sugarcane fields, which were labored on by large numbers of African slaves, making the colony one of the wealthiest in the world.
During the French Revolution (1789–99), slaves and free people of color launched the Haitian Revolution (1791–1804), headed by Toussaint Louverture, a former slave and the first black commander of the French Army. Napoleon Bonaparte's forces were defeated after 12 years of conflict by Louverture's successor, Jean-Jacques Dessalines (later Emperor Jacques I), who declared Haiti's sovereignty on 1 January 1804—the first independent nation of Latin America and the Caribbean, the second republic in the Americas, the first country in the Americas to abolish slavery, and the only state in history established by a successful slave revolt. All of Haiti's earliest leaders were former slaves, with the exception of Alexandre Pétion, the first President of the Republic. After a short period of division, President Jean-Pierre Boyer unified the nation and then sought to bring the whole island of Hispaniola under Haitian authority, sparking a lengthy series of battles that concluded in the 1870s when Haiti legally acknowledged the Dominican Republic's independence.
Haiti's first century of independence was marked by political turmoil, diplomatic isolation, and the payment of a debilitating debt to France. From 1915 through 1934, the United States occupied the nation due to political instability and foreign economic influence. Following a series of brief presidencies, François 'Papa Doc' Duvalier took power in 1956, ushering in a long period of autocratic rule that was continued by his son, Jean-Claude 'Baby Doc' Duvalier, until 1986; the period was marked by state-sanctioned violence against the opposition and civilians, corruption, and economic stagnation. Haiti started seeking to develop a more democratic political system after 1986.
Haiti is a founding member of the United Nations, the Organization of American States (OAS), the Caribbean States Association, and the Organisation Internationale de la Francophonie. It is a member of the International Monetary Fund, the World Trade Organization, and the Community of Latin American and the Caribbean States, in addition to CARICOM. Haiti has the lowest Human Development Index in the Americas, owing to its history of poverty and political instability. Since the turn of the century, the country has seen a coup that forced United Nations involvement, as well as a devastating earthquake that killed over 250,000 people.
Employees in Haiti have 15 days of paid leave, including 13 working days and two Sundays, in addition to public holidays. Vacation days are not added together.
Haiti observes the following public holidays:
Labour and Agricultural Day
Flag and University Day
Anniversary of JJ Dessalines’ Death
All Saints’ Day
All Souls’ Day
Vertières Battle Day
After one year of work, employees are entitled to 15 days of paid sick leave every year. Employees with less than a year of service are eligible for a prorated number of sick days. A medical certificate is required of all employees.
Female employees are entitled to 12 weeks of maternity leave, six weeks before and six weeks after the birth of their child. Maternity leave is extended if the baby is born after the due date, allowing for a total of six weeks off following the delivery. While on maternity leave, female employees are paid 100% of their income through the Office of Workers' Compensation Insurance, Maternity and Sickness (OFATMA). Employees on maternity leave can only be fired if they are misbehaving.
There is no statutory paternity leave in Haiti.
Other than the already mentioned terms regarding maternity leave in Guyana, there are no other provisions in the law regarding parental leave.
Employment can be ended by mutual accord, by the employer (with or without cause), or by the employee.
Employers may terminate an employee without notice for threatening or abusive behavior, property damage, unauthorized absence for three consecutive days or four consecutive days in a month, failure to follow accident prevention measures, lying about qualifications, imprisonment for more than one month, or contract breach. Employers must notify the Labor Department of the termination and offer a cause for the termination. The Labor Department will investigate the termination and, if there is a disagreement, will refer the subject to arbitration. If the termination is determined to be unlawful, damages and compensation may be given.
By mutual consent, an employment contract may be dissolved without notice. If the job contract is also in writing, the mutual agreement must be in writing. If the employment contract is verbal, consent to terminate may be given in writing or orally in the presence of two witnesses.
Workers with more than three months of service are only needed to get termination notices. The length of notice varies depending on the length of employment. You must pay the employee severance equal to the salary they would have earned during the notice period if the termination is effective immediately.
Employees in Haiti may be terminated within the probation period.
Severance payments are typically between one and three weeks' earnings.
The typical workweek is 48 hours, or eight hours per day for six days. During the week, employees are entitled to a continuous rest period of 24 hours. Between the hours of 6 p.m. and 6 a.m., night work occurs. Night work is permitted only when it is physically impossible to perform the work during the day and is limited to eight hours per day.
Individuals 14 years or older may enter an apprenticeship in exchange for instruction and 40% of the legal minimum daily wage. Apprentices must pass a medical examination.
The maximum amount of overtime permitted is two hours per day, 80 hours per quarter, or 320 hours per year. The majority of employees earn 50% more in overtime than they do on a regular basis.
While Haiti has a set minimum wage, it varies by industry segment. Certain employees are required to earn a set hourly wage, while others, particularly in the garment industry, are compensated on a piece rate basis. The following details the minimum wages in various industries as of 2019.
Segment A has a minimum wage of 550 gourdes per day.
Segment B has a minimum wage of 440 gourdes per day.
Segment C has a minimum wage of 385 gourdes per day.
Servants who work a standard eight-hour day are compensated with 250 gourdes. Employees of export-oriented piecework firms earn 500 gourdes, while those employed by private education and health institutions earn 440 gourdes.
Employees are required to receive a bonus between December 24 and the end of the year. The bonus must be at least one month's worth of the worker's annual salary. This bonus is available to all employees, regardless of length of service.
Within 15 days of the launch, all employers must register with OFATMA. Employers must contribute 6% of each employee's monthly salary to this insurance. You must also register with the National Old Age Insurance Office in order to make pension contributions.
Companies in Haiti are imposed a corporate tax rate of 30 percent.
Individuals in Haiti are generally subject to an income tax rate between 0 and 30 percent. The actual percentage varies depending on the income bracket the individual belongs to.
The value-added tax (VAT) or goods and sales tax (GST) in Haiti is currently set at 10 percent.
A nation's visa policy is a set of rules that govern who may and cannot enter the country. The visa policy of Haiti governs who is permitted entry and who needs a visa. The policy may enable passport holders from one nation to enter without a visa, but not passport holders from another. Most visa rules are bilateral, which means that two nations will allow visa-free travel to nationals of the other country, although this is not always the case.
When it comes to Haiti visa policy, there are no hard and fast standards for nations to follow. However, some common reasons include diplomatic contacts with the other nation, the country's history of illegal immigration, if any, cost and tourist factors, and more.
There are several sorts of visas available depending on your purpose of travel and nationality. The Haiti visa policy is in conformity with bilateral and international travel agreements.
The period of stay differs amongst visa classes as well. Citizens of visa-exempt nations may remain in Haiti for up to 90 days.
The Haitian visa policy promotes visa-free travel to the majority of nations. The Haiti visa policy allows visitors from 193 countries to enter the country without a visa. Visitors from five countries need a visa to enter Haiti. Nationals of visa-exempt nations may remain without a visa for up to 90 days.
The tourist has a lot of leeway with the Haiti visa rules. It aids the tourist business. Only five nations need a visa to enter Haiti. Others can go to Haiti for free. If you submit a valid passport and the necessary documentation, an embassy in Haiti will give you a visa.
As long as you have the necessary paperwork and are in good health, you should have no problem entering Haiti. Because Haiti's visa procedure is lax, travelers may readily enter the nation. Use the Haiti visa rules to see whether you may visit the country without a visa.
Citizens of visa-exempt nations are not required to get a visa to enter Haiti. Travelers must have a valid passport for six months after arrival in Haiti. Haiti has embassies all around the globe that may grant visas to citizens of countries that need them.
In Haiti, an employment contract might be either written or informal. Employment contracts must be written in French, and original copies must be delivered to both the employer and the employee. Contracts should include the following provisions:
Employer and employee names, addresses, and identities
Work hours Description of work to be performed
The location of the work to be done
End date if for a fixed term
Signed documents (or fingerprint and witness signatures for those who cannot sign)
There is no set length for assignments. This is usually indicated in the employment contract for fixed-term employments.
Haitian Gourde (HTG)
United States Dollar (USD)
Each stage of the process of establishing your subsidiary must be managed by a lawyer hired by your firm. Your lawyer is in charge of registering your company entity with the Ministry of Commerce and Industry's Registry, as well as with fiscal and social authorities in Haiti. The necessary paperwork, signed by the Consul, must be filed at the Ministry of Foreign Affairs by your parent firm. The subsidiary's statutes will be drafted by your lawyer.
Several papers, including your payment of the Tax Authority registration fee, must be notarized. After you register, the Ministry of Commerce and Industry will send your documentation so that your constitution may be published in Le Moniteur.
To operate legally, you must first have all paperwork notarized, submitted, authorized, and publicized. Your subsidiary will acquire its Authorization to Operate after your lawyer has fulfilled their requirements.
International investors may own a complete subsidiary or create a joint venture with citizens. That entity continues to enjoy the same benefits as Haitian-owned businesses. Furthermore, multinational corporations may function without adhering to an equity-to-debt ratio.