Guinea-Bissau, formally the Republic of Guinea-Bissau, is a West African nation with a land area of 36,125 square kilometers (13,948 square miles) and a population of 1,726,000 people. It has borders with Senegal to the north and Guinea to the south.
Guinea-Bissau was originally a member of the Kaabu kingdom as well as the Mali Empire. Parts of this kingdom lasted until the 18th century, while the Portuguese Empire ruled over a few others from the 16th century. It was colonized as Portuguese Guinea in the nineteenth century. When the nation gained independence in 1973 and was recognized in 1974, the name of its capital, Bissau, was added to the country's name to avoid confusion with Guinea (formerly French Guinea). Since independence, Guinea-Bissau has experienced political instability, with just one elected president (José Mário Vaz) serving a complete five-year term. Umaro Sissoco Embaló is the current president, having been elected on December 29, 2019.
The official language, Portuguese, is spoken by only around 2% of the population as a first language, and by 33% as a second language. Nonetheless, Guinea-Bissau Creole, a creole based on Portuguese, is the national language and is also regarded as the language of togetherness. According to a 2012 research, Creole is spoken as a first language by 54% of the population and as a second language by 40%. The remaining speak a variety of African native languages. Guinea-Bissau has a wide range of faiths. The primary faiths practiced in the nation are Islam and Christianity. The GDP per capita in the nation is among the lowest in the world.
Guinea-Bissau is a member of the United Nations, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, the Organization Internationale de la Francophonie, and the South Atlantic Peace and Cooperation Zone, as well as the now-defunct Latin Union.