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Ghana, formally the Republic of Ghana, is a West African nation. It is bordered by the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean to the south, the Ivory Coast to the west, Burkina Faso to the north, and Togo to the east. Ghana has a total land area of 238,535 km2 (92,099 sq mi), with different biomes ranging from coastal savannas to tropical rain forests. Ghana is the second-most populous nation in West Africa, behind Nigeria, with a population of about 31 million people. Accra is the capital and biggest city; other notable cities include Kumasi, Tamale, and Sekondi-Takoradi.
The Bono Kingdom of the 11th century was Ghana's first permanent state. Over the ages, several kingdoms and empires arose, the most powerful of which were the Kingdom of Dagbon in the north and the Ashanti Empire in the south. The Portuguese Empire, followed by various other European nations, battled the region for commercial rights beginning in the 15th century until the British eventually achieved control of the coast by the late 19th century. Ghana's present boundaries emerged after more than a century of colonialism, covering four independent British colonial territories: the Gold Coast, Ashanti, the Northern Territories, and British Togoland. On March 6, 1957, they were united as an independent dominion within the Commonwealth of Nations, becoming the first colony in Sub-Saharan Africa to acquire sovereignty. Ghana thereafter gained prominence in decolonization efforts and the Pan-African movement.
Ghana is a multi-ethnic nation with a diversified demographic, language, and religious groupings; although the Akan are the most populous ethnic group, they are just a minority. The great majority of Ghanaians (71.3 percent) are Christian, with about a fifth Muslim and a tenth professing traditional religions or claiming no religion. Ghana is a unitary constitutional democracy governed by a president who serves as both the head of state and the head of government. It has had one of the freest and most stable administrations on the continent since 1993, and it does rather well in terms of healthcare, economic growth, and human development. As a result, Ghana wields considerable power in West Africa and is deeply involved in international politics, having joined the Non-Aligned Movement, the African Union, the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), and the Group of 24 (G24), and the Commonwealth of Nations.
After serving for at least 12 months in Ghana, the minimum annual leave is 15 working days.
Ghana recognizes 13 public holidays.
Except that sick leave must be approved by a doctor and is not included in the paid leave entitlement, there are no specific labor rules on sick pay.
Maternity leave is 12 weeks long, though it can be extended in certain circumstances. A mother is entitled to one hour during the workday after returning from maternity leave to feed her child before the child hits the age of one year.
There are no provisions in the Ghana law regarding paternity leave.
There are no provisions in the Ghana law regarding parental leave.
The employee or the employer may end the employment contract at any time in Ghana. Termination notices must be in writing.
If an employee believes their termination was unjust, they may file a claim with the labor court and, in some situations, have their employment reinstated. Unfair terminations may occur for the following reasons: the employee intends to join a union; the employee is pregnant or absent due to maternity leave; the employee is terminated due to race or religion; the employee is disabled; and the employee is forced to terminate due to the employer's inaction following multiple harassment complaints.
The following is the Ghanaian notice period. There will be a one-month notice period or one-month salary in lieu of notice for contracts of three or more years. Two weeks' notice or two weeks' compensation in lieu of notice will be provided for employment contracts of less than three years. There will be seven days' notice in the case of a week-to-week contract. A contract that is determinable at will by any party may be terminated without notice at the end of the day. Unless the employment contract has a "at will" clause, it is possible to pay the employee in lieu of notice. An employee can be fired without warning at the end of a working day under this situation.
Probation period is not outlined in the law, except for that that it should be reasonable. In general, probation periods are agreed upon in collective agreements.
The employer is not required to give severance compensation to the employee. However, the employer is required to pay the employee any wages earned before to termination, any deferred pay owed to the employee, and any compensation owed to the employee. Additionally to the foregoing, expatriates shall be compensated for travel and repatriation expenses, including those of their family members.
A typical workweek is 40 hours, or eight hours per day, for five days. Employees receive a 12-hour rest period spread over 24 or 48 hours in a week. Those under the age of 18 years may be employed only if a physician certifies them fit. They are not suitable for use in hazardous environments or underground mines. Evening work occurs between the hours of 10 p.m. and 7 a.m., and a pregnant woman is unable to work during those hours.
Unless both parties agree, employees are not permitted to work overtime. While the law requires that overtime be compensated, it does not specify the rate of pay. Overtime, on the other hand, is typically compensated at a rate of 150 percent of regular pay. Overtime pay is 200 percent of regular pay on weekends and holidays.
In Ghana, the daily minimum wage is 11.82 GHS, or 319.14 GHS per month.
State and compulsory benefits include old-age pensions, death and long-term disability pensions, short-term sickness benefits, redundancy benefits, occupational accidents and diseases, maternity benefits, medical emergency benefits, and fair treatment and compensation.
Ghana has national health insurance that covers all citizens' basic health care needs.
Ghana does not impose a corporate tax.
Ghana does not impose a personal income tax.
The value-added tax (VAT) or goods and sales tax (GST) in Ghana is set at 3 percent.
Ghana is a member of the Economic Community of West African Governments (ECOWAS) and other regional accords that provide member states with a specialized framework.
A Business Visa is required for the majority of business travellers visiting Ghana (B-1). Some foreign nationals are free from visa requirements due to their citizenship. B-1 visas permit either single or numerous admissions. Applicants for B-1 visas may seek an initial stay of 30 to 60 days. Business visas may be renewed once for a period of 60 days, for a total stay of 120 days.
The In Quota Work Permit, Standard Work Permit, and Petroleum Commission are the three primary forms of work permission in Ghana that may be awarded for up to 12 months.
The In Quota Work Permit is for businesses that have a pre-approved quota.
All other foreign national employees must have a Standard Work Permit (no quota but longer processing time).
The PC (Petroleum Commission) Work Permit is intended for enterprises involved in the oil and gas industry.
All travelers entering or transiting through Ghana must be vaccinated against Yellow Fever at least ten (10) days before the proposed date of travel, and if already vaccinated, provide evidence (certificate) indicating the duration of the vaccination status of not more than ten (10) years before entering Ghana.
If the job is for six months or longer, a contract should be established outlining both parties' rights and duties. Within two months of the start date of the employment, employers must give a written statement containing the name of the employer and employee, start date, job title, work hours, salary, yearly leave, social security, overtime payment, sick leave, and dispute resolution.
For long-term employment, employment contracts might be indefinite, while fixed-term contracts are for project-based labor. Employers may also utilize temporary worker contracts for employees who will be working for less than six months and casual work contracts for labor that will be needed on an as-needed basis. Although there are no legislative regulations for background checks, checks directly relevant to employment are permitted.
There is no set length for assignments. This is usually indicated in the employment contract for fixed-term employments.
Ghanaian Cedi (GHC)
We suggest investigating key parts of the procedure before commencing incorporation if you need to set up a Ghana subsidiary. Begin by identifying a place that is welcoming to foreign investment and has the appropriate availability, pricing, and other considerations. Because various places may have their unique Ghana subsidiary laws, if you are unfamiliar with the country's regions, you should engage with a consultant who can assist you locate the ideal site.
The procedure for establishing a Ghana subsidiary differs depending on the company. You may incorporate as a limited liability business (LLC), public limited company, branch office, or free zone corporation, among others. An LLC is the most common choice since it allows you to function in Ghana as if you were a local firm.
The following processes are involved in establishing your Ghana subsidiary as an LLC:
1. Adding your office, major place of business, and postal addresses
2. Authorizing and issuing your desired number of shares
3. Making a list of all shareholders' names and addresses
4. Employing a business secretary
5. Filing and presenting documents about the company's name and the nature of its business
6. Submitting and recording information on at least two directors
7. Filing and recording your auditor's name and address
8. Obtaining certificates of incorporation and business start-up
9. Obtaining a certified accurate copy of the company's rules
You must abide by the subsidiary laws applicable to the company you choose. LLCs, for example, must have at least one shareholder and two directors. All three directors may be foreigners, but at least one must be Ghanaian. If you're incorporating as a totally owned foreign business, you'll additionally require a minimum of $500,000 in paid-up share capital. If you establish your subsidiary as a trading firm, the amount rises to $1 million. Foreign investors must deposit $200,000 to a joint venture business with a Ghanaian citizen.
All limited liability companies (LLCs) in Ghana must hire a company secretary and a registered local auditor to assess their yearly financial accounts. A registered office with a post office box is also required for any correspondence and notifications. According to Ghana's subsidiary legislation, all statutory and accounting records must be retained at your registered office.