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Egypt, formally the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental republic that spans the northeastern corner of Africa and the southwest corner of Asia through the Sinai Peninsula. It is bounded to the north by the Mediterranean Sea, to the northeast by the Gaza Strip (Palestine) and Israel, to the east by the Red Sea, to the south by Sudan, and to the west by Libya. Egypt is separated from Jordan and Saudi Arabia by the Gulf of Aqaba in the northeast. Cairo is Egypt's capital and biggest city, while Alexandria, the country's second-largest city, is a major industrial and tourism center on the Mediterranean coast. Egypt is the 14th most populous nation in the world, with a population of almost 100 million people.
Egypt has one of the oldest histories of any nation, dating back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE throughout the Nile Delta. Ancient Egypt, regarded as the birthplace of civilization, saw some of the first advancements in writing, agriculture, urbanization, organized religion, and central government. This heritage is reflected in iconic structures such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well as the ruins of Memphis, Thebes, Karnak, and the Valley of the Kings, which remain a major focus of scholarly and public attention. Egypt's long and rich cultural past is an intrinsic element of its national identity, reflecting its unique transcontinental position as the Mediterranean, Middle Eastern, and North African all at the same time. Egypt was an early and prominent Christian center, but it was fully Islamized in the seventh century and remains a mostly Sunni Muslim nation, but with a considerable Christian minority and various smaller religions.
Egypt became a monarchy after gaining independence from the British Empire in 1922. Egypt proclaimed itself a republic during the 1952 revolution, and in 1958 it combined with Syria to establish the United Arab Republic, which disintegrated in 1961. Throughout the second half of the twentieth century, Egypt experienced social and religious unrest as well as political instability, waging multiple violent battles with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967, and 1973, and temporarily occupying the Gaza Strip until 1967. Egypt signed the Camp David Accords in 1978, formally withdrawing from Gaza and recognizing Israel. From political upheaval, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment, the nation continues to confront problems. Egypt's current administration, a semi-presidential republic headed by Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, has been branded as authoritarian or as leading an authoritarian regime responsible for the country's dismal human rights record by a number of watchdogs.
Egypt's official religion is Islam, and Arabic is its official language. Egypt is the most populated nation in North Africa, the Middle East, and the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa (after Nigeria and Ethiopia), and the fourteenth-most populous in the world, with over 100 million people. The vast majority of its population resides around the Nile River's banks, a region of roughly 40,000 square kilometers (15,000 square miles), where the only fertile land can be found. The Sahara desert, which covers the majority of Egypt's area, is sparsely populated. About half of Egypt's population lives in cities, with the majority concentrated in Greater Cairo, Alexandria, and other large Nile Delta cities.
Egypt is seen as a regional force in North Africa, the Middle East, and the Muslim world, as well as a global middle power. It is a developing nation, with a Human Development Index rating of 116th. It has a diverse economy that is the third-largest in Africa, the 33rd-largest in nominal GDP, and the 20th-largest in PPP terms. Egypt is a founding member of many organizations, including the United Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Arab League, the African Union, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, and the World Youth Forum.
Annual leave in Egypt is 21 days. After 6 months of service, you are entitled to benefits.
Annual leave is 30 days for employees who have worked for more than ten years.
Employees above the age of 50 have the right to take 30 days off.
Egypt recognizes fourteen public holidays.
An employee can take up to 6 months of paid maternity leave, but they must have a doctor's note.
The employee is entitled to 75 percent of their wages for the first 90 days of sick leave.
The employee is entitled to 85 percent of their wages for the next 90 days.
Employees can turn their annual leave days to sick leave if necessary.
For any infant up to three years, female employers who have contributed to social security for the previous ten months are entitled to up to three months of maternity leave and 75 percent of their last salary.
For the next 24 months after the woman returns to work, she is entitled to two half-hour breastfeeding periods or a combined hour per day.
Employers with more than 100 staff must either have an in-house nursery or be responsible for putting the infant in nursery care before he or she reaches the age of schooling.
There are currently no provisions in the Egyptian law regarding paternity leave.
For each boy, the mother is entitled to 24 months of unpaid leave if the business has more than 50 workers.
The right to work flexible hours is not required of workers with dependents, although it is always stipulated in the job contract.
Job-related injury leave: From the first day after the injury before the employer is cleared to return to work or is deemed medically injured, 100 percent of the wage is paid.
Terminating an employment contract before to the contract's expiration date is extremely difficult and is often regarded wrongful termination unless the dismissal is based on a "fundamental breach" of the contract, which is defined as follows: falsifying/forging identification; violating safety instructions; being absent for twenty or more non-consecutive days or ten consecutive days in a year; disclosing employer secrets that result in significant loss; competing with the employer in the same field of work; intoxication during work hours; and physical altercations with the employer or other employees; professional incompetence.
Unjustified termination of a fixed-term employment contract: The employer must compensate the employee for the wages they would have earned had they fulfilled their employment contract.
Termination of an indefinite contract without a justifiable clause: Employer is required to pay no less than two months' salary for each year of service.
Compensation for unjust dismissal shall be agreed upon, but cannot be less than two months' salary.
The duration of the notice period is determined by the employee's length of service. The notice period is two months for employees with less than ten years of service. The notice period is three months for employees who have been with the company for more than ten years.
The probation period lasts for up to three months.
Severance pay is not required in Egypt unless specifically stated in the employment contract.
The standard workweek is 48 hours and each day is eight hours, with at least one hour of rest. Employees should receive a minimum of 24 hours of rest per week.
An employee shall not be required to work more than five consecutive hours per day without taking at least ten hours of rest, including overtime.
Daily overtime is limited to two hours. Overtime is compensated at a rate of 135 percent of regular pay during the day and 170 percent during the night.
Egypt's monthly minimum wage is 2,400 EGP.
Private businesses must offer free health care to Egyptian workers, either via the Ministry of Social Insurance's Medical Insurance Plan or privately.
Companies in Egypt are imposed a 22.5 percent tax on corporate profits, and a 5 percent tax on the distribution of profits.
Individuals in Egypt are imposed an income tax rate between 0 and 22.5 percent. The actual percentage depends on the income bracket the individual belongs to.
The value-added tax (VAT) or the goods and sales tax (GST) in Egypt varies depending on the good or service provided. The standard rate is 14 percent. A 10-percent tax is imposed on professional sevices while goods for export are tax-exempt.
Foreigners are severely barred from working in Egypt unless they have a valid work permit. The Ministry of Manpower in Egypt issues a work permit that is normally valid for one year.
Before the government will grant a work permit to a foreigner, a labor market test must be performed to demonstrate that no local individuals are qualified for the post. When a work visa is eventually issued, the applicant is required to train at least two Egyptian natives to work in the same capacity. Applying for a work visa in Egypt normally takes 1 to 3 months before the candidate is able to visit the country. The procedure might take another 2 to 4 months to finish.
The work visa is the first sort of visa. When a foreign citizen obtains a work permit, their visa, which may have been a temporary/tourist visa, is changed into a work visa.
The temporary/tourist visa, on the other hand, is a single-entry 30-day tourist visa that may be obtained upon arrival at Egyptian airports. It is also the visa that people get in order to work.
An ordinary visa is valid for three to five years and permits an employee's spouse to obtain a residence permit for the duration of the employee's work permit.
The special visa is only available to expatriates who were born in Egypt before May 26, 1952, or who have lived in Egypt for more than 20 years after that date. It is good for 10 years and is renewable.
Scanned copy of National ID
Social Security number
Bank details and SWIFT Code
Original academic certificate
Original military certificate (for men only)
There is no set length for assignments. However, if the employee is assigned for less than three months, they are not eligible for social insurance.
Egyptian Pound (EGP)
US Dollar (USD)
If you decide to establish an Egypt subsidiary on your own, you'll need to pick where you want to incorporate in the nation. Similarly to how states in the United States have their own rules and regulations, distinct areas in Egypt may have unique subsidiary laws that make incorporation easier or more difficult. Always do preliminary research on the location of your real office space.
Because Egypt has a variety of subsidiary structures, you should choose the one that best meets your company objectives. A limited liability corporation (LLC), a joint stock company, a foreign branch office, and a representative office are all choices. Most businesses opt to organize as an LLC due to the advantages it provides to both subsidiaries and parent corporations.
The following actions are required to establish an Egypt subsidiary as an LLC:
(1) Obtaining a certificate of clearance for a trade name
(2) Obtaining a certificate from a reputable bank
(3) Documents to be submitted to the Companies Establishment Department
(4) Notarizing the contract for the corporation
(5) Issuing a notice of incorporation
(6) Obtaining a certificate from a business register
(7) Filling up tax forms
(8) Registering all workers with the National Social Insurance Administration
Which Egypt subsidiary laws you must follow are also determined by the sort of subsidiary company you pick. LLCs must have at least two owners and one management who must be an Egyptian citizen. Every LLC must register with the Commercial Registry and remain under GAFI's supervision. Though Egypt subsidiary rules do not demand a minimum amount of capital, we propose a minimum paid-up share capital of $1,000.
An LLC requires constitutive papers that adhere to model legislation promulgated by a Ministerial decree. You must also come up with a business name that alludes to your activity and contains the names of one or more of your shareholders. In addition, to be legal, LLCs must maintain financial books and records and file yearly audited tax reports.