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Cameroon is a nation in west-central Africa. Its official name is the Republic of Cameroon. It is bounded on the west and north by Nigeria, on the northeast by Chad, on the east by the Central African Republic, and on the south by Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and the Republic of the Congo. Its shoreline is located on the Bight of Biafra, which is part of the Gulf of Guinea and the Atlantic Ocean. Because of its important location at the crossroads of West and Central Africa, the nation is sometimes referred to as West African and other times as Central African. Its almost 25 million inhabitants speak 250 different languages.
The Sao civilization near Lake Chad and the Baka hunter-gatherers in the southeastern jungle were early residents of the region. In the 15th century, Portuguese explorers reached the shore and dubbed the place Rio dos Camarões (Shrimp River), which became Cameroon in English. In the nineteenth century, Fulani troops built the Adamawa Emirate in the north, while numerous ethnic groups in the west and northwest established strong chiefdoms and fondoms. Cameroon became a German colony known as Kamerun in 1884. Following World War I, it was partitioned into League of Nations mandates for France and the United Kingdom. The political group Union des Populations du Cameroun (UPC) desired independence but was proscribed by France in the 1950s, sparking a national liberation insurrection waged between French and UPC militant troops until early 1971. The French-administered region of Cameroon gained independence in 1960 as the Republic of Cameroon, led by President Ahmadou Ahidjo. In 1961, it merged with the southern half of British Cameroons to become the Federal Republic of Cameroon. In 1972, the federation was disbanded. In 1972, the nation was renamed the United Republic of Cameroon, and in 1984, it was renamed the Republic of Cameroon. The current president, Paul Biya, has governed the country since 1982, after Ahidjo's resignation; he previously served as prime minister from 1975 to 1982. Cameroon is ruled by a presidential unitary republic.
Cameroon's official languages are French and English, which are also the official languages of former French Cameroons and British Cameroons. Its religious population is mostly Christian, with a sizable Muslim minority and some professing traditional religions. Tensions have arisen in the English-speaking areas, where politicians have called for further decentralization and even outright separation or independence (as in the Southern Cameroons National Council). Tensions in the English-speaking areas over the establishment of an Ambazonian state erupted into outright combat in 2017.
A large proportion of Cameroonians are subsistence farmers. Because of its physical, linguistic, and cultural richness, the nation is frequently described to as "Africa in small." Beaches, deserts, mountains, jungles, and savannas are among its natural characteristics. Mount Cameroon in the Southwest Region has the highest peak at over 4,100 meters (13,500 feet). Douala on the Wouri River, its commercial capital and principal seaport; Yaoundé, its political capital; and Garoua are its most populous cities. Cameroon is highly recognized for its indigenous music forms, including Makossa and Bikutsi, as well as its strong national football team. It is a member of the African Union, the UN, the Organization Internationale de la Francophonie (OIF), the Commonwealth of Nations, the Non-Aligned Movement, and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation.
Employees get 1.5 days of paid sick time for every month served, with an additional two days following five years of employment.
Employees are therefore entitled to ten days of paid time off during family activities. For any child under the age of six, female employers are entitled to two days of paid leave.
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Employees are entitled to five days of paid maternity time each year, and employees are liable for medical expenses if an employee is injured on the job.
Female workers are entitled to 14 weeks of maternity leave, beginning four weeks before the due date, covered by the CNPS. In the case of a medical emergency, this will be prolonged by six weeks. Maternity leave starts four weeks prior to the due date of the baby's arrival. If the time of confinement occurs after the due date, the maternity leave will resume in full once the period of confinement starts. The expectant mother's regular rate of pay is compensated after maternity leave by social security. Vaccinations, diet, and medical consultations are also covered by the CNPS for children under the age of two.
For up to 15 months after the pregnancy, the mother is entitled to breastfeeding breaks of up to an hour a day.
Paternity leave will be taken from the 10 days of voluntary paid parental leave available to fathers.
Other than the already mentioned terms for maternity and paternity leaves, there are no provisions in the Cameroon law regarding parental leave.
Employers have the authority to terminate workers when a fixed-term contract expires, when particular job is completed, for misbehavior, economic reasons, or for fair cause.
The notice period is determined by the Minister of Labor. During the notice period, the employee is permitted to take one day off every week to look for work. Severance pay is paid to employees who have worked for the company for two years or more, as defined by the Ministry of Labor.
The probation period is capped at six months for employees and eight months for managers. Fixed-term contracts are capped at 24 months and can be extended once and can only be terminated for gross misconduct and mutual consent.
Severance pay is normally available to employees who have worked for at least two years. The amount of pay is established by the Minister responsible for Labour.
A 40-hour workweek is considered standard. Night work occurs between the hours of 10 p.m. and 6 a.m., with a 12-hour rest period in between each night of work. Female employees and children are not permitted to work at night, unless they are executives or work in fields other than manual labor.
In Cameroon, employees are permitted to work up to 20 hours of overtime per week. Overtime pay should not be less than 125% of the regular rate of pay.
The minimum wage in Cameroon is currently 36,270 CFA francs, or approximately 55 EUR. Unless your industry is governed by a collective bargaining agreement (CBA), this minimum wage applies to all sectors. While CBAs are not common in Cameroon, employers should check for any that may impact Cameroon's compensation laws prior to drafting an employment contract.
Cameroon had community-based health insurance in 2012, especially for the poor. Cameroon is aiming toward a universal healthcare system, however private healthcare insurance is available.
Cameroon's primary healthcare provider is the government. Employees are required to enroll in a private health insurance plan. Employers are not obligated by law to provide health insurance to their employees.
Companies in Cameroon are subject to a corporate tax rate of 31.5 percent.
Individuals in Cameroon are imposed an income tax rate that ranges from 10 percent to 35 percent. The actual percentage varies depending on the income tax bracket the individual belongs to.
The standard rate for the value-added tax (VAT) or goods and sales tax (GST) in Cameroon is set at 19.25 percent.
The country's visa policy is straightforward: most tourists will need a visa to enter Cameroon. Only six nations are visa-free: the Central African Republic, Chad, the Republic of Congo, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, and Nigeria. Visitors from these countries may stay in Cameroon for up to 90 days without a visa. The remainder of the globe must apply for a visa, however visas on arrival are only accessible to diplomatic and service passport holders.
In terms of requirements, we recommend that all passengers consult the embassy or diplomatic mission of their destination country. Although there is a wealth of information accessible online, it should only be used as a guide. Cameroon's diplomatic mission or embassy is always the most credible source of information. Nonetheless, we can provide you with some information regarding the fundamental criteria. For starters, you must have a passport that is valid for at least 6 months after your scheduled date of arrival in Cameroon. You will also be required to provide passport-sized pictures with your application and even upon arrival. Finally, all visitors to Cameroon must be immunized against Yellow Fever. To board the aircraft, you must have a vaccination certificate.
An employment contract should be written and include the names and contact information for both parties, as well as the workplace location, notice period, duties, work hours, probation period, start date, and remuneration. Both the employer and the employee should have a copy. Employment contracts that require an employee to live away from their usual abode for more than three months must be in writing. Foreign national employment contracts must be authorized by the Minister in charge of Labour.
Fixed-term contracts must have a start and end date, are restricted to two years in length, and may only be renewed once. These contracts are often for seasonal or temporary employees, or to temporarily replace a permanent worker who is away. Full-time contracts for an indeterminate period of time are also permitted.
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Many considerations must be considered by your organization before deciding how to establish your Cameroon subsidiary. Do you, for example, know where you want to incorporate in Cameroon? Different towns and areas in Cameroon may have their own Cameroon subsidiary laws, as well as their own pricing and availability. If you are unfamiliar with the many regions of Cameroon, we suggest working with a consultant who will show you the ideal locations for your company.
Your entity is another aspect that influences the Cameroon subsidiary formation procedure. Cameroon offers many subsidiary forms for creation, including a limited liability company (LLC), a public limited company, a branch, or a representative office. Your entity not only affects the Cameroon subsidiary laws you must obey, but it also defines the kind of activities you may do in in the nation.
Many businesses choose to organize as an LLC because it gives them the greatest flexibility in operating in Cameroon. The following are the stages to forming an LLC:
1. Adding your name to the Trade and Personal Property Credit Register (RCCM)
2. Obtaining a taxes department business license and paying the yearly charge
3. Obtaining a tax identification number from the taxes department
4. Registering your workers and business with the National Social Security Fund (CNPS) and the Labor Office
5. Opening a bank account in your home country
6. Placing a minimum share capital deposit
Cameroon's subsidiary laws vary depending on whatever entity you pick. If you opt to incorporate your Cameroon subsidiary as an LLC, you must have at least one resident director and one shareholder of any country, who may be a person or a corporate entity. To complete the incorporation procedure, you must additionally invest $1,900 in minimum paid-up share capital.
Although LLCs have the greatest operating flexibility in Cameroon, they also have higher tax obligations. If your LLC meets one of the following criteria, you must have a statutory auditor verify your accounts:
1. Over $19,000 in registered capital
2. Over $477,000 in annual revenue
3. There are more than 50 workers.