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Belarus, formally the Republic of Belarus, is an Eastern European landlocked nation. It is bounded to the east and northeast by Russia, to the south by Ukraine, to the west by Poland, and to the northwest by Lithuania and Latvia. Belarus is the 13th-largest and 20th-most populated nation in Europe, with an area of 207,600 square kilometers (80,200 square miles) and a population of 9.3 million. The nation is split into seven administrative areas. The capital and biggest city are Minsk.
Until the twentieth century, the areas of modern-day Belarus were ruled by numerous nations, notably Kievan Rus', the Principality of Polotsk, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and the Russian Empire. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, many republics developed contending for legitimacy during the Civil War, eventually culminating in the formation of the Byelorussian SSR, which became a founding component republic of the Soviet Union in 1922. Belarus lost about half of its territory to Poland during the Polish-Soviet War. Much of Belarus's contemporary boundaries were established in 1939 when certain regions of the Second Polish Republic were reintegrated into it after the Soviet invasion of Poland and were formalized after World War II. During WWII, military activities destroyed Belarus, causing the country to lose a quarter of its people and half of its economic resources. In the postwar years, the republic was rebuilt. The Byelorussian SSR, along with the Soviet Union, became a founding member of the United Nations in 1945.
On July 27, 1990, the parliament of the republic recognized Belarus' sovereignty, and on August 25, 1991, following the fall of the Soviet Union, Belarus declared independence. Following the passage of a new constitution in 1994, Alexander Lukashenko was elected Belarus's first president in the country's first and only free election following independence, and he has served in that capacity ever since. Lukashenko is the leader of an authoritarian regime with a terrible human rights record owing to rampant violations. Lukashenko has maintained a number of Soviet-era policies, including state control of substantial segments of the economy. Belarus is Europe's only official user of the death sentence. Belarus and Russia signed a deal for deeper cooperation in 2000, establishing the Union State.
Belarus is a developing nation, coming in at number 53 on the Human Development Index. It has been a member of the UN since its inception and has also joined the CIS, CSTO, EAEU, OSCE, and the Non-Aligned Movement. Although it has shown no desire to join the European Union, it maintains a bilateral connection with the union and participates in two EU programs, the Baku Initiative and the Eastern Partnership. Belarus will withdraw from the latter on June 28, 2021, after the EU placed further sanctions on the nation.
Employees in Belarus are entitled to more than 24 paid vacation days.
There are nine non-working public holidays in Belarus.
For the first 12 days of incapacity, employees receive 80% of their average daily earnings.
In Belarus, the current maternity leave is:
126 days of paid maternity leave (140 days if medical conditions arise or if two or more children are born), plus three years of unpaid maternity leave during which the job vacancy must remain available (the mother can resume work earlier if she wants to),
If a second child is born during these three years, the maternity leave period will begin all over again.
Fathers in Belarus can receive at most fourteen days of unpaid leave in the first six months after the birth of their child.
This is indicated in both the maternity and paternity leaves.
In Belarus, an employment contract may be terminated under the following circumstances: agreement by both parties, when the contract's term expires except when neither party desires termination, if initiated by either party (employer or employee), if the employee agrees to be transferred to an elective position, or if the employee objects to relocation to another location. Employers, on the other hand, find it difficult to fire employees, and they must give good reasons. Unless otherwise specified in the agreement, the notice period must be two months.
A notice period of at least one month is required.
Employers may impose a three-month probationary period. A minimum of three days' notice is required for early termination during the probationary period.
Severance payments are determined by the employment contract but should typically equal two weeks' pay for the employee.
Belarus's standard workweek is 40 hours spread over five days. A working day's duration, including overtime hours, cannot exceed 12 hours.
Overtime should be limited to 12 hours per day, 10 hours per week, and 180 hours per year. Time off is granted in lieu of overtime compensation.
Overtime work is permitted only with the employee's consent and in exchange for the corresponding overtime pay or additional days off. Employees working on overtime must be compensated at a rate of 200 percent of their regular pay.
Belarus's minimum wage is 1,450 BYR (560 USD) per month as of 2021, according to Belarus compensation laws. Bonuses and a 13th month of pay are common, though they are not required by law.
Belarusian citizens are eligible to public healthcare; nevertheless, most companies provide supplementary health insurance coverage.
Workers in the rapidly expanding IT industry pay lower income tax rates, earn higher wages, and enjoy Western-style benefits and bonuses.
Companies in Belarus are subject to a corporate tax rate of 18 percent.
Individuals in Belarus are imposed an income tax rate that ranges from 13 percent to 17 percent. The actual percentage varies depending on the income tax bracket the individual belongs to.
The standard value-added tax rate in Belarus is set at 20 percent. The reduced VAT rate is set at 10 percent.
Foreign nationals who intend to enter Belarus must first get the necessary visa. The following visas are available in the country:
Transit visa type B
Type C visa is valid for up to 90 days of short-term trips (These visas cover short stays for business meetings, conferences, training, and more in Belarus)
Long-term stay visa (type D) (Employees who plan to remain in Belarus for employment on a long-term basis will need to obtain a Type D visa)
Before commencing work in Belarus, international employees will need to get a work permit. Officially, this permission is known as a "Special work permit in the Republic of Belarus."
International employees must submit the following papers to get a visa to work in Belarus:
A visa application form that has been completed
A passport photograph taken in the previous six months
A valid passport with a photo, at least two blank pages, and validity for at least 90 days after the applicant plans to leave Belarus.
Medical insurance documentation
A copy of the applicant's work permit that has been certified
Payment for the visa fee must be accompanied by proof of payment.
If the employee decides to send the application, return postage should be included.
Some workers may additionally be required to produce extra paperwork; for example, candidates under the age of 28 must show a copy of their birth certificate as well as copies of their parents' or legal representatives' passports.
Applicants who formerly possessed Belarusian or Soviet citizenship must confirm their loss of citizenship.
In Belarus, the employer must commence the work permit application procedure (typically issued for one year, although highly qualified employees may be eligible to receive a permit valid for two years). The completed application must be sent to the Department of Internal Affairs, together with the necessary papers and evidence of payment for the processing fee. If the company intends to hire more than 10 foreign workers, a permission from the Department of Nationality and Migration will be required.
A work permit takes around 15 days to process. Prospective workers can apply for a visa to enter Belarus once their work permit has been approved.
A documented employment contract with two copies is required. Every page must be signed. The employment contract must include the names and addresses of both parties, the location of the workplace, responsibilities, work hours, probation period, start date, annual leave, other types of leave, and salary. The probation term must also be included.
Employers may utilize fixed-term employment contracts with a start and end date. These contracts expire when the contract is completed, if the specified job is completed, or if the weather stops seasonal labor.
Permanent contracts must have a beginning date but no ending date.
Belarusian Ruble (BYN)
The procedure of establishing a Belarus subsidiary is determined by where you choose to incorporate and which entity is most suited to your requirements. Location is important since different cities or areas may have their own subsidiary rules that make incorporation simpler or more complex. We advise either studying a location before deciding on a real office space or engaging with a third party or consultant who can identify the ideal place.
It's also a good idea to revisit your company's business objectives and aspirations for doing business in Belarus. Your legal entity will have an impact on your activities in the nation, as well as your financial and tax reporting, customs processes, and other aspects. A limited liability company (LLC), a joint-stock corporation, and a representative office are the three types of subsidiary structures in Belarus. Most companies opt to organize as an LLC because it permits them to engage in more commercial activities with fewer constraints.
The following stages are involved in establishing your Belarus subsidiary as an LLC:
1. Choosing a Distinctive Company Name
2. Getting your firm name registered with the appropriate authorities
3. Creating and notarizing corporate papers, such as the Articles of Association
registering the business by submitting documentation to the state
4. Opening a bank account and making a minimum share capital deposit
5. Making a corporate seal
Belarus' subsidiary laws are also affected by the entity you choose. LLCs must have at least one person director and one shareholder, who may be of any country and reside anywhere in the world. In addition, to incorporate, you simply need 1 EUR in share capital. If you incorporate with just one shareholder, your firm is known as a private unitary entity (PUE), while LLCs with several shareholders are known as OOOs.
When preparing your incorporation paperwork, make sure they are written in both Russian and Belarusian. The papers must then be notarized by the closest notary public. Finally, in order to comply with Belarus subsidiary rules, LLCs must produce yearly audited financial accounts.