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Tuvalu, historically known as the Ellice Islands, is an island republic in the Pacific Ocean's Polynesian subregion of Oceania. Its islands are around halfway between Hawaii and Australia. They are located east-northeast of the Solomon Islands' Santa Cruz Islands, northeast of Vanuatu, southeast of Nauru, south of Kiribati, west of Tokelau, northwest of Samoa, Wallis and Futuna, and north of Fiji. Tuvalu is made up of three coral reef islands and six atolls. They are located between latitudes of 5° and 10° south and longitudes of 176° and 180°. They are located to the west of the International Date Line. Tuvalu's population is 10,507 people (2017 census). Tuvalu's islands have a total land area of 26 square kilometers (10 sq mi).
According to well-established views, the initial residents of Tuvalu were Polynesians who migrated into the Pacific some three thousand years ago. Polynesians routinely traveled by canoe across the Pacific islands long before European contact. Polynesian navigation abilities allowed them to arrange sophisticated voyages in double-hulled sailing canoes or outrigger canoes. Polynesians, according to scholars, moved out from Samoa and Tonga into the Tuvaluan atolls, which subsequently acted as a stepping stone for further migration into Polynesian outliers in Melanesia and Micronesia.
During an attempt to find Terra Australis, Spanish sailor lvaro de Mendaa became the first European to sail through the archipelago in 1568, seeing the island of Nui. In 1819, Funafuti was renamed Ellice's Island. English hydrographer Alexander George Findlay later called the whole group Ellice Islands. In the late nineteenth century, the United Kingdom claimed possession of the Ellice Islands, claiming them as part of their area of influence. Captain Gibson of HMS Curacoa proclaimed each of the Ellice Islands a British protectorate between October 9 and 16, 1892. As part of the British Western Pacific Territories, Britain appointed a resident commissioner to manage the Ellice Islands (BWPT). They were controlled as part of the Gilbert and Ellice Islands colony from 1916 until 1975.
In 1974, a vote was conducted to decide if the Gilbert and Ellice Islands should have their own governance. The Gilbert and Ellice Islands colony legally ceased to exist on 1 October 1975, and the old government was formally dissolved on 1 January 1976, resulting in the formation of two independent British colonies, Kiribati and Tuvalu. Tuvalu gained complete independence as a sovereign state within the Commonwealth on October 1, 1978, with Elizabeth II as Queen of Tuvalu. Tuvalu became the 189th member of the United Nations on September 5, 2000.
Because the islands lack soil, they depend primarily on imports and fishing for food, with fishing and tourism being the mainstays of the economy. Because it is a tiny, low-lying island nation, the country is especially susceptible to climate change-related sea level rise. As a member of the Alliance of Small Island States, it participates in international climate discussions.
On the islands, the standard workday is eight hours, though regulations vary. The Labor Commissioner establishes the working days and hours for specific jobs and industries. Employers must discuss the task at hand with task workers to determine if it qualifies as an eight-hour day and should be treated as such.
Overtime hours and pay must be agreed upon in the employment contract between the employer and employee.
Tuvalu has no minimum wage set for the private sector. Tuvalu's minimum wage rate is A$3,00- A$ 4,000 for workers in the public sector.
Because health care in the nation is publicly financed, labor rules do not compel businesses to offer health insurance plans. If an employee is injured while on the job, the employer is obligated to pay any medical costs.
In certain cases, the Health Officer may compel an employer to have a hospital or sickroom on the premises. This scenario is dependent on the number of employees and the type of the job. These combinations may include:
A room designed for sick employees capable of holding 10 percent of the workforce
A separate building equipped as a hospital with a capacity for 10 percent of the workforce
Services from a health care professional
The employer will cover these expenses in full if the Health Officer requires it.
Tuvalu labor rules do not specify whether or not incentives are needed for workers, but employers are free to give them as they see appropriate.
Employees who work away from home may be eligible for additional benefits in certain circumstances. In addition to the employer-provided free repatriation, these employees must be provided with accommodation as part of their job contract. This home should be able to accommodate any dependents the employee may have.
All corporate profits are also taxed at the flat rate of 30 percent.
There is a fixed income tax of 30 percent on all income above US$1,900.
Certain products and services are subject to sales taxes. Stamp sales, copra, and fishing permits are also taxed by the government. The government maintains price controls on essential food and gasoline.
The Tuvalu visa policy outlines the procedures that foreign people must follow in order to visit the Pacific Islands. The criteria are often decided by the foreigner's nationality, the purpose of their journey, and the amount of time they want to remain in Tuvalu.
Tuvalu authorities have created a flexible visa policy under which all foreign citizens are required to obtain a visa, with the exception of passport holders from any of the Schengen zone nations.
Tuvalu and the European Union concluded a mutual visa waiver agreement in 2016. The agreement allows people of the EU and the Schengen region to enter the nation without obtaining a visa.
Schengen tourists do not need a visa to visit Tuvalu and may remain on the islands for up to 90 days during a 180-day period, according to Tuvalu visa rules.
It is crucial to note, however, that Tuvalu's visa policy is not regulated. Travelers from the other nations, on the other hand, may get a visa on arrival at any of the entry points.
Citizens from more than 30 countries and territories are free from paying the AUD 100 visa cost when they arrive. Nationals from non-listed countries may get a visa on arrival by paying the AUD 100 visa fee.
Foreigners must apply for a permission to come and remain in Tuvalu in order to work and live lawfully. These permits are also issued upon arrival and are designed for commercial, employment, educational, research, and religious reasons. These licenses are issued by authorities for a period of up to one year.
As previously stated, Tuvalu's visa policy is straightforward and inviting; despite the fact that most foreign citizens need a visa to visit the islands as tourists, they may get their visa on arrival at any of the ports of entry.
Foreign citizens from the Schengen agreement's 26 member nations do not need a visa to enter Tuvalu. Instead, they must provide a passport with at least six months' validity and a blank page, as well as pay a AUD 100 cost. They are permitted to remain for a maximum of 90 days in a 180-day term.
The basic rate of pay
The type of employment (full-time, part-time, or casual)
Work arrangements such as varying hours or shifts
Information on leave and leave taking
Information on settling disputes
A flexibility term to allow negotiation to meet individual needs
There is no set length for assignments. This is usually indicated in the employment contract for fixed-term employments.
Australian Dollar (AUD)
United States Dollar (USD)
When forming a corporation in Tuvalu, you have the option of making it proprietary or public. Proprietary companies are unable to offer shares to anyone outside of the firm, while public corporations are able to do so.
The process of forming a subsidiary begins with filing an incorporation application to the Registrar of Companies. Along with your application, you must include your business name, Memorandum and Articles of Association, and a list of your directors and their addresses.
Your business name should not be a name that is already in use in the nation. If you file for a name that already exists, the Registrar will not allow you to incorporate. They will provide you other names and enable you to resubmit your application.
When you acquire your certificate of incorporation, you will be given a taxpayer identification number (TIN), which will enable you to pay taxes and file income tax returns for your staff. To contribute to employee pensions, you must first register with the Tuvalu National Provident Fund (TNPF). You should also create a bank account in the name of your firm.
When you seek for incorporation, your organization must abide by the applicable subsidiary legislation. The needed Memorandum and Articles of Association are one of the most noteworthy statutes. The memorandum must include:
1. The firm's name
2. The location of your registered office
3. The planned capitalization
4. The number of directors, as well as the minimum and maximum for the corporation
Companies are required to have at least two directors, however a firm may establish a greater minimum for its organization. Before filing for incorporation, business owners must also own or rent a property.
The Articles of Association serve as bylaws for your subsidiary by detailing key corporate procedures. The election of directors, financial reporting, and other procedures are examples of these processes.