Tunisia is Africa's northernmost country, officially known as the Republic of Tunisia. It is part of the Maghreb region of North Africa, bordered on the west and southwest by Algeria, on the southeast by Libya, and on the north and east by the Mediterranean Sea. It covers 163,610 km2 and has a population of 11 million people. The eastern end of the Atlas Mountains and the northern ranges of the Sahara desert are part of it, with most of the remaining land being arable. Its 1,300 km of coastline includes the African meeting point of the Mediterranean Basin's western and eastern portions. Tunisia is home to Africa's northernmost point, Cape Angela, and its capital and largest city, Tunis, which gives the country its name, is located on the country's northeastern coast. Tunisia has been populated by indigenous Berbers since antiquity. The Phoenicians arrived in the 12th century BC and founded many towns, the most important of which was Carthage by the 7th century BC. Carthage, a major mercantile empire and military competitor of the Roman Republic, was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC, and the Romans ruled Tunisia for the next 800 years, spreading Christianity and leaving architectural legacies such as the El Jem Amphitheatre. Muslims captured all of Tunisia by 697, after many failed attempts dating back to 647, introducing Islam and Arab culture to the locals. The Ottoman Empire took over in 1574 and ruled for over 300 years, until Tunisia was invaded by the French in 1881. Tunisia became independent in 1957, thanks to the efforts of Habib Bourguiba, who proclaimed the Tunisian Republic. Tunisia is the smallest country in North Africa today, but its culture and identity are embedded in this centuries-old melting pot of cultures and ethnicities. The Tunisian Revolution, sparked by the lack of freedom and democracy under president Zine El Abidine Ben Ali's 24-year reign, overthrew his regime in 2011 and sparked the Arab Spring across the country. Soon after, the country held free multiparty parliamentary elections; on October 26, 2014, the country voted for parliament again, and on November 23, 2014, it voted for president. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential parliamentary democratic republic that is the only country in North Africa to be rated as "Free" by Freedom House and the only completely democratic state in the Arab World according to the Economist Intelligence Unit's Democracy Index. It is one of the few African countries with a high Human Development Index and one of the continent's highest per capita incomes. Tunisia is a well-integrated member of the global community. It belongs to the United Nations, La Francophonie, the Arab League, the Organization of Islamic Cooperation, the African Union, the Non-Aligned Movement, the International Criminal Court, and the Group of 77, among other organizations.