Sudan is a country in northeast Africa, formally known as the Sudanese Republic. It is bordered on the north by Egypt, on the northwest by Libya, on the west by Chad, on the southwest by the Central African Republic, on the south by South Sudan, on the southeast by Ethiopia, on the east by Eritrea, and on the northeast by the Red Sea. Sudan has 44.91 million inhabitants and covers 1,886,068 square kilometers, making it Africa's third-largest country by area and the Arab League's third-largest by area as of 2021. Before the secession of South Sudan in 2011, it was also the largest country in Africa and the Arab League by area. Since then, Algeria has retained both titles. Sudan's history can be traced back to the Pharaonic period, with the Kingdom of Kerma, the Egyptian New Kingdom's subsequent rule, and the rise of the Kingdom of Kush, which would dominate Egypt for nearly a century. The Nubians founded the three Christian kingdoms of Nobatia, Makuria, and Alodia after the fall of Kush, with the latter two remaining until about 1500. Much of Sudan was settled by Arab nomads between the 14th and 15th centuries. The Funj sultanate governed central and eastern Sudan from the 16th to the 19th centuries, while Darfur ruled the west and the Ottomans ruled the far north. Under the Muhammad Ali dynasty, Egypt occupied the entire Sudan in the 19th century. Sudan's modern boundaries were established under Egyptian rule, and the country's political, agricultural, and economic growth began. Nationalist sentiment in Egypt sparked the Orabi Revolt in 1881, undermining the Egyptian monarchy and ultimately leading to the United Kingdom's occupation of Egypt. At the same time, religious-nationalist fervor in Sudan exploded in the Mahdist Revolt, which resulted in the creation of the rebel Caliphate of Omdurman, led by the self-proclaimed Mahdi Muhammad Ahmad. A joint Egyptian-British military force finally defeated the Mahdist forces, restoring Egyptian monarchy authority. Egyptian sovereignty in Sudan, on the other hand, will be largely ceremonial going forward, since the real authority in both Egypt and Sudan was now the United Kingdom. Egypt decided to share control over Sudan with the United Kingdom as a condominium in 1899, under British pressure. Sudan was effectively ruled as a British possession. Both Egyptian and Sudanese nationalism grew in the twentieth century, with the aim of ending the British occupation. The Egyptian Revolution of 1952 overthrew the monarchy and demanded that British powers leave Egypt and Sudan entirely. One of the revolution's two co-leaders and Egypt's first President, Muhammad Naguib, who was half-Sudanese and raised in Sudan, made securing Sudanese independence a top priority for the revolutionary government.