Somalia is a country in the Horn of Africa that is formally known as the Federal Republic of Somalia. It is bordered on the west by Ethiopia, on the northwest by Djibouti, on the north by the Gulf of Aden, on the east by the Indian Ocean, and on the southwest by Kenya. Somalia has the longest coastline on the continent of Africa. Plateaus, hills, and highlands make up the majority of the landscape. The climate is hot all year, with monsoon winds and intermittent rainfall. Somalia is Africa's most culturally homogeneous nation, with an approximate population of about 15 million people. Ethnic Somalis, who have traditionally populated the country's north, make up about 85% of the population. The south is home to the majority of ethnic minorities. Somalia's official languages are Somali and Arabic. The majority of Somalis are Muslims, the majority of whom are Sunni. Somalia was once a major commercial hub. It's one of the most likely locations for the fabled ancient Punt Land. Several influential Somali empires, including the Ajuran Sultanate, the Adal Sultanate, and the Sultanate of the Geledi, dominated regional trade during the Middle Ages. The Somali Sultanates were colonized by Italy, Britain, and Ethiopia in the late nineteenth century. During four expeditions against Somaliland, Sayid Mohamed's Dervish movement managed to frustrate the Abyssinians, Italians, and British, forcing them to withdraw to the coast, before eventually being defeated in the 1920 Somaliland Campaign. After successfully waging the Sultanates Campaign against the ruling Majeerteen Sultanate and Sultanate of Hobyo, Italy gained complete control of the northeastern, central, and southern parts of the region. The two territories merged in 1960 to create the independent Somali Republic, which was governed by a civilian government. In 1969, the Supreme Revolutionary Council seized power and formed the Somali Democratic Republic, which collapsed 22 years later, in 1991, when the Somali Civil War broke out. Most regions reverted to customary and religious law during this period. A number of temporary federal administrations were established in the early 2000s. In 2000, the Transitional National Government was formed, followed by the Transitional Federal Government in 2004, which re-established the Somali Armed Forces. The TFG took charge of the majority of the country's southern conflict zones from the newly established Islamic Courts Union in 2006. The ICU splintered into more militant factions, such as Al-Shabaab, which fought the TFG and its AMISOM allies for control of the region. By mid-2012, the rebels had lost much of the territories they had taken, and a search for more permanent democratic institutions had begun. In August 2012, a new provisional constitution was passed, reforming Somalia as a federation.