Employers may fire an indefinite-term employee only for a legally recognized reason. Numerous legally acceptable reasons are not employee-specific, such as redundancy due to business reorganization or staff reductions. Others are individual to the employee, such as the employee becoming incapable of performing the job, frequent failure to meet job requirements, or a single act of serious misconduct, such as illegal absence without a good reason, being intoxicated at work, or stealing from the company.
Terminating an employee for poor performance or serious misconduct entails a lengthy procedure that includes recording the employee's misdeeds, issuing warnings, and notifying the employee in advance. In fact, rather than going through this process, many employers arrange for the employment contract to be terminated by mutual consent, which can occur at any time and, subject to certain constraints, on any conditions agreed upon by the employer and employee.
Fixed-term contracts are typically terminated when the stipulated circumstances are met (e.g., the conclusion of a project, the end of the season for seasonal labor, the return of a permanent employee temporarily replaced by the fixed-term contract employee), or when the contract's term expires. The employer must notify the employee at least three days prior to the contract expiring that it will not be extended or renewed. If the employer fails to do so and the employee continues to work, the contract is transformed immediately to an indefinite contract.
An employee on probation may be terminated with three days' written notice that includes the basis for the termination. Employees who desire to resign must offer two weeks written notice. Severance pay is also available in some other conditions, such as conscription or inability to work. In these instances, severance pay is typically two weeks' salary, though various other considerations can change the amount.
A notice period is required only in limited circumstances.
The severance pay is only required in certain circumstances.
In Russia, the maximum probation period is three months. Employers are still required to provide a reason for terminating an employee's employment if the contract is terminated during the probationary period.