New Zealand is an island nation in the Pacific Ocean's southwest corner. It is made up of two major landmasses, the North and South Islands, as well as over 700 smaller islands, comprising a total area of 268,021 square kilometers. New Zealand is about 2,000 kilometers east of Australia and 1,000 kilometers south of the islands of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga across the Tasman Sea. Tectonic uplift and volcanic eruptions are responsible for the country's varied topography and sharp mountain peaks, including the Southern Alps. Wellington is the capital of New Zealand, and Auckland is the most populous city. The islands of New Zealand were the last large inhabited lands to be populated by humans due to their remoteness. Polynesians started to settle in the islands around 1280 and established a distinct Mori community around 1350. Abel Tasman, a Dutch explorer, was the first European to see New Zealand in 1642. The Treaty of Waitangi was signed in 1840 by representatives of the United Kingdom and Mori chiefs, establishing British control over the islands. New Zealand became a colony of the British Empire in 1841, and then a dominion in 1907. It achieved full statutory independence in 1947, but the British king remained in control. The indigenous Mori are the largest minority, followed by Asians and Pacific Islanders, who make up the bulk of New Zealand's population of 5 million people. New Zealand's culture is largely derived from Mori and early British settlers, with recent broadening due to increased immigration reflecting this. English, Mori, and New Zealand Sign Language are the official languages, with English being the most widely spoken. New Zealand is a developing country that performs well in international comparisons of national success in areas such as quality of life, education, civil rights security, government accountability, and economic freedom. During the 1980s, New Zealand's economy underwent significant changes, transforming it from a protectionist to a liberalized free-trade economy. The service sector, followed by the manufacturing sector and agriculture, dominates the national economy; foreign tourism is a major source of revenue. On a national level, legislative power is vested in an elected, unicameral Parliament, while executive political power is exercised by the Cabinet, which is currently headed by Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern. The country's leader, Queen Elizabeth II, is served by a governor-general, officially Dame Patsy Reddy. In addition, for local government purposes, New Zealand is divided into 11 provincial councils and 67 municipal authorities. Tokelau, the Cook Islands, and Niue are all part of New Zealand's Realm, as is the Ross Dependency, which is New Zealand's claim to Antarctica.