Myanmar, also known as Burma, is a Southeast Asian nation whose official name is the Republic of the Union of Myanmar. Myanmar is bordered on the northwest by Bangladesh and India, on the northeast by China, on the east and southeast by Laos and Thailand, and on the south and southwest by the Andaman Sea and the Bay of Bengal. Myanmar is the most populous country in Mainland Southeast Asia and the tenth most populous country in Asia. In 2017, the population was estimated to be about 54 million people. Its capital is Naypyidaw, and its largest city is Yangon. The Tibeto-Burman-speaking Pyu city-states in Upper Myanmar and the Mon kingdoms in Lower Myanmar were among the earliest civilisations in the region. The Bamar people arrived in the upper Irrawaddy valley in the 9th century, and after the establishment of the Pagan Kingdom in the 1050s, the Burmese language, culture, and Theravada Buddhism gradually took hold of the region. The Pagan Kingdom was conquered by the Mongols, and many warring states arose. For a brief time in the 16th century, when the Taungoo dynasty reunified the nation, it became the largest empire in Southeast Asia's history. The Konbaung dynasty ruled over a region that included modern-day Myanmar, as well as Manipur and Assam for a brief period. After three Anglo-Burmese Wars in the 19th century, the British East India Company took control of Myanmar's government, and the nation became a British colony. Myanmar was recaptured by the Allies and given independence in 1948 after a brief Japanese occupation. It became a military dictatorship under the Burma Socialist Programme Party after a coup d'état in 1962. The nation has been engulfed in rampant ethnic violence for most of its independent years, and its diverse ethnic groups have been embroiled in one of the world's longest-running civil wars. During this time, the United Nations and a number of other organizations have documented widespread and systemic violations of human rights in the region. Following a 2010 general election, the military junta was formally disbanded in 2011, and a nominally civilian government was established. Along with the release of Aung San Suu Kyi and other political prisoners, the country's human rights and international relations have strengthened, and trade and other economic sanctions have been eased. However, the government's handling of ethnic minorities, reaction to the ethnic uprising, and religious clashes continue to be criticized. Aung San Suu Kyi's party gained a majority in both houses of parliament in the 2015 election. The Burmese military, however, remained a strong political force, seizing power in a coup d'état on 1 February 2021. Myanmar is a member of the East Asia Summit, the Non-Aligned Movement, ASEAN, and BIMSTEC, but not the Commonwealth of Nations. It is a nation abundant in jade and diamonds, as well as gold, natural gas, and other minerals.