Mongolia is an East Asian landlocked republic. It is bordered on the north by Russia and on the south by China, where it shares a border with the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Mongolia does not share a border with Kazakhstan, despite the fact that the two countries are just 37 kilometers apart. With a population of just 3.3 million people and a land area of 1,564,116 square kilometers, it is the world's most sparsely populated sovereign country. Mongolia is the world's largest landlocked nation without a closed sea and has very little arable land, with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. The capital and largest city, Ulaanbaatar, is home to approximately half of Mongolia's population. Various nomadic empires have ruled over modern-day Mongolia, including the Xiongnu, the Xianbei, the Rouran, the First Turkic Khaganate, and others. In 1206, Genghis Khan founded the Mongol Empire, which grew to be the world's largest contiguous land empire. Kublai Khan, his grandson, conquered China and founded the Yuan dynasty. With the exception of the eras of Dayan Khan and Tumen Zasagt Khan, the Mongols withdrew to Mongolia after the Yuan's fall and revived their earlier pattern of factional strife. Tibetan Buddhism spread to Mongolia in the 16th century, aided by the Manchu-founded Qing dynasty, which absorbed Mongolia in the 17th century. By the early twentieth century, Buddhist monks made up about a third of the adult male population. Mongolia declared independence after the Qing dynasty fell apart in 1911, and gained full independence from the Republic of China in 1921. The nation was soon made a satellite state of the Soviet Union, which had helped it gain independence from China. The Mongolian People's Republic was founded as a socialist state in 1924. Mongolia held its own nonviolent democratic movement in early 1990, following the anti-Communist revolutions of 1989. This resulted in the establishment of a multi-party system, the adoption of a new constitution in 1992, and the transition to a market economy. Around 30% of the population is nomadic or semi-nomadic, and horse culture is still very important. The majority religion is Buddhism, with the nonreligious making up the second largest party. The second-largest religion is Islam, which is mostly practiced by ethnic Kazakhs. The majority of people are ethnic Mongols, with Kazakhs, Tuvans, and other minorities accounting for about 4% of the population, mostly clustered in the west. Mongolia is a member of the UN, the Asia Cooperation Dialogue, the G77, the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, the Non-Aligned Movement, and NATO. It became a member of the World Trade Organization in 1997 and is looking to increase its involvement in international economic and trade organizations.