Malawi is a landlocked nation in southeastern Africa that was previously known as Nyasaland. Its official name is the Republic of Malawi. It is bordered on the west by Zambia, on the north and northeast by Tanzania, and on the east, south, and southwest by Mozambique. Malawi has a total area of 118,484 km2 and a population of 19,431,566 people. Lake Malawi, also known as Lake Nyasa, covers about one-third of Malawi's land area. Lilongwe is Malawi's capital. Blantyre is the second-largest city, Mzuzu is the third-largest, and Zomba, the former capital, is the fourth-largest. Malawi is derived from the Maravi, a traditional name for the Chewa people who live in the region. Because of the friendliness of its inhabitants, Malawi is regarded as "The Warm Heart of Africa." Migrating Bantu groups settled the area that is now Malawi around the 10th century. The region was colonized by the British in 1891, and became known as Nyasaland, a protectorate of the United Kingdom. In 1953, it joined the semi-independent Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland as a protectorate. In 1963, the Federation was disbanded. The protectorate ended in 1964, and Nyasaland was renamed Malawi and became an independent country under Queen Elizabeth II. It became a republic two years later. It achieved full independence from the United Kingdom in 1970, and by 1970, it had transformed into a authoritarian one-party state under Hastings Banda's presidency, which he held until 1994. Malawi is now a multi-party democratic republic with an elected president. After the May 2019 Presidential Election was annulled due to major electoral fraud, Lazarus Chakwera of the Malawi Congress Party led the Tonse Alliance coalition of nine political parties to victory in the court-mandated Presidential Election rerun on June 23, 2020. The Malawian Defence Force, which comprises an army, navy, and air wing, is the country's military. Malawi has a pro-Western foreign policy. It has good diplomatic ties with most countries and is a member of the United Nations, the Commonwealth of Nations, the Southern African Development Community, the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa, and the African Union. Malawi is one of the world's poorest nations. The economy is heavily reliant on agriculture, and the population is predominantly rural and rapidly growing. Malawi's government is heavily reliant on foreign assistance to meet its development needs, despite the fact that the amount needed has decreased since 2000. Despite widespread unemployment, the Malawian government faces challenges in its efforts to develop and expand the economy, boost education, healthcare, and environmental protection, and become financially self-sufficient.