Iraq, officially the Republic of Iraq, is a country in Western Asia bordered on the north by Turkey, on the east by Iran, on the southeast by Kuwait, on the south by Saudi Arabia, on the southwest by Jordan, and on the west by Syria. Baghdad is the country's capital and largest city. Arabs, Kurds, Turkmens, Assyrians, Yazidis, Shabakis, Armenians, Mandaeans, Circassians, Sabians, and Kawliya are among Iraq's ethnic groups. Muslims make up 95-98% of the country's 38 million citizens, with small minorities of Christians, Yarsans, Yezidis, and Mandeans. Arabic and Kurdish are Iraq's official languages. The Mesopotamian Alluvial Plain, the northwestern end of the Zagros mountain range, and the eastern portion of the Syrian Desert are all part of Iraq's 58-kilometer-long coastline on the northern Persian Gulf. The Tigris and Euphrates are two major rivers that flow south through Iraq and into the Shatt al-Arab near the Persian Gulf. These rivers offer vast swaths of fertile land to Iraq. Mesopotamia, the area between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, is sometimes referred to as the "cradle of civilization." It was here that humanity first learned to read, write, establish rules, and live in cities under a centralized government, most notably Uruk, from which the name "Iraq" was derived. Since the 6th millennium BC, the region has been home to various civilisations. The Akkadian, Sumerian, Assyrian, and Babylonian empires all had their capital in Iraq. It was also a part of the Median, Achaemenid, Hellenistic, Parthian, Sassanid, Roman, Rashidun, Umayyad, Abbasid, Ayyubid, Seljuk, Mongol, Timurid, Safavid, Afsharid, and Ottoman empires. Until the Ottoman Empire was partitioned in the twentieth century, Iraq was a territory of the Ottoman Empire. Mosul Vilayet, Baghdad Vilayet, and Basra Vilayet were the three provinces that made up the Ottoman Turkish language. Under the auspices of the League of Nations, the British Mandate of Mesopotamia was established in April 1920. In 1921, Faisal I of Iraq created a British-backed monarchy to unite these vilayets into one Kingdom. In 1932, the Hashemite Kingdom of Iraq declared independence from the United Kingdom. The monarchy was deposed in 1958, and the Iraqi Republic was established. From 1968 to 2003, Iraq was ruled by the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party. Iraq invaded Iran in 1980, igniting a protracted war that lasted nearly eight years and ended in a stalemate with disastrous losses for both countries. Saddam Hussein's Ba'ath Party was deposed from power in 2003 after an invasion by the US and its allies, and multi-party parliamentary elections were held in 2005. The US military involvement in Iraq ended in 2011, but the insurgency in Iraq grew stronger as fighters from Syria's civil war entered the region. The rebellion spawned ISIL, a highly destructive organization that seized vast swaths of the north and west.