Fiji, formally the Republic of Fiji, is a South Pacific island nation in Melanesia, part of Oceania. It is located about 1,100 miles northeast of New Zealand. Fiji is made up of an archipelago of over 330 islands (about 110 of which are permanently inhabited) and over 500 islets, covering an area of about 18,300 square kilometers. Ono-i-Lau is the most remote island group. The two main islands, Viti Levu and Vanua Levu, are home to 87% of the total population of 883,483. Around three-quarters of Fijians live on the island of Viti Levu's coasts, either in Suva, the capital, or in smaller towns like Nadi, where tourism is the main industry, or Lautoka, where the sugar cane industry is dominant. Because of its landscape, the interior of Viti Levu is sparsely populated. The majority of Fiji's islands were created by volcanic activity that began about 150 million years ago. On the islands of Vanua Levu and Taveuni, some geothermal activity can still be found. Viti Levu's geothermal systems are non-volcanic and have low-temperature surface discharges. Since the second millennium BC, humans have lived in Fiji, first as Austronesians, then as Melanesians, with some Polynesian influences. Fiji was first visited by Europeans in the 17th century. The British founded the Colony of Fiji in 1874, after a brief time when Fiji was an independent kingdom. Fiji was a Crown colony until 1970, when it became an independent country known as the Dominion of Fiji. Following a series of coups d'état, the military government in power proclaimed the country a republic in 1987. Commodore Frank Bainimarama seized power in a 2006 coup. The Fijian High Court ruled in 2009 that the military leadership was unconstitutional. At that time, President Ratu Josefa Iloilo, who had been named interim prime minister by the military, formally abrogated the 1997 Constitution and re-appointed Bainimarama. Ratu Epeli Nailatikau succeeded Iloilo as president later in 2009. After years of delays, a democratic election was held on September 17, 2014. Fiji has one of the most developed economies in the Pacific, thanks to its plentiful timber, mineral, and fish wealth. Bainimarama's FijiFirst party received 59.2% of the vote, and foreign observers found the election credible. The Fijian dollar is the official currency, and the tourism industry, remittances from Fijians employed abroad, bottled water exports, and sugar cane are the key sources of foreign exchange. Fiji's local government, which consists of city and town councils, is supervised by the Ministry of Local Government and Urban Development.