Eswatini, officially the Kingdom of Eswatini, is a landlocked country in Southern Africa. It is also written in English as eSwatini, and was formerly and is still widely known in English as Swaziland. It is bordered to the northeast by Mozambique and to the north, west, and south by South Africa. Eswatini is one of Africa's smallest nations, measuring just 200 kilometers north to south and 130 kilometers east to west; however, its climate and topography are varied, ranging from a cool and mountainous highveld to a hot and dry lowveld. Swazis make up the majority of the population. Swazi is the most widely spoken language. The Swazis established their kingdom in the mid-eighteenth century under the leadership of Ngwane III; the nation and the Swazi get their names from Mswati II, a 19th-century king under whose rule Swazi territory was extended and unified; the current borders were drawn up in 1881 during the Scramble for Africa. Following the Second Boer War, the kingdom became a British protectorate, known as Swaziland, from 1903 until it regained independence on September 6, 1968. The official name of the country was changed from Kingdom of Swaziland to Kingdom of Eswatini in April 2018, to reflect the Swazi name. King Mswati III has ruled the country since 1986. Every five years, elections are held to decide the House of Assembly and Senate majority. In 2005, the new constitution was ratified. The nation's most significant activities are the umhlanga reed dance in August/September and the incwala kingship dance in December/January. Eswatini is a developing country with a lower-middle income economy. Eswatini's main local trading partner is South Africa, which is a member of the Southern African Customs Union and the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa. To ensure economic stability, Eswatini's currency, the lilangeni, is pegged to the South African rand. The United States and the European Union are Eswatini's most significant trade partners abroad. The agricultural and manufacturing sectors provide the bulk of the country's employment. The Southern African Development Community, the African Union, the Commonwealth of Nations, and the United Nations are all members of Eswatini. The Swazi people face serious health problems, including HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis. 26% of the adult population is HIV-positive, according to estimates. Eswatini has the world's 12th-lowest life expectancy, at 58 years, as of 2018. Eswatini's population is young, with a median age of 20.5 years and people aged 14 and under accounting for 37.5% of the total population. The current rate of population growth is 1.2%.