Denmark is a Nordic country in Northern Europe, officially known as the Kingdom of Denmark. Denmark proper, the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations, is made up of a peninsula, Jutland, and a 443-island archipelago, the majority of which are Zealand, Funen, and the North Jutlandic Island. Flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation, and a temperate climate characterize the islands. Denmark is located southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, with Germany to the south. Denmark is a constitutionally unitary state that includes Denmark itself as well as the two autonomous territories in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark has a total area of 42,943 km2 as of 2020, with a total area of 2,210,579 km2 when Greenland and the Faroe Islands are included. Denmark has a population of 5.84 million people. In the 8th century, the united kingdom of Denmark emerged as a capable seafaring country in the fight for dominance of the Baltic Sea. The Kalmar Union, which began in 1397 and ended with Swedish secession in 1523, united Denmark, Sweden, and Norway under a single sovereign ruler. Denmark–Norway was the name given to the territory of Denmark and Norway that was ruled by the same ruler until 1814. Several destructive wars with the Swedish Empire began in the 17th century, culminating in major cessions of land to Sweden. Norway was given to Sweden after the Napoleonic Wars, while Denmark retained the Faroe Islands, Greenland, and Iceland. There was a surge of nationalist movements in the nineteenth century, which were defeated in the First Schleswig War. Denmark lost the Duchy of Schleswig to Prussia during the Second Schleswig War in 1864. During World War I, Denmark remained neutral; however, in 1920, the northern half of Schleswig reverted to Danish control. A German invasion in April 1940 resulted in brief military skirmishes, while the Danish resistance movement operated from 1943 to the German surrender in May 1945. Denmark, an industrialised agricultural exporter in the second half of the nineteenth century, implemented social and labor-market reforms in the early twentieth century, laying the groundwork for the current welfare state model with a well-developed mixed economy. On June 5, 1849, the Danish Constitution was ratified, putting an end to the absolute monarchy that had existed since 1660. It creates a representative democracy within a constitutional monarchy. Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, and main commercial center, houses the government and national parliament. Denmark wields hegemony over the Danish Realm, delegating authority to manage internal affairs. In the Faroe Islands, home rule was established in 1948; in Greenland, home rule was established in 1979, followed by more autonomy in 2009. Denmark joined the European Economic Community in 1973, albeit with certain exemptions, and it keeps its own currency, the krone.