Cuba, officially the Republic of Cuba, is a country that includes the island of Cuba, as well as the Isla de la Juventud and a number of smaller archipelagos. The Caribbean Sea, Gulf of Mexico, and Atlantic Ocean all converge in Cuba, which is situated in the northern Caribbean. It is located east of the Yucatán Peninsula, south of Florida and the Bahamas in the United States, west of Hispaniola, and north of Jamaica and the Cayman Islands in the Caribbean. Havana is the largest and capital city, though Santiago de Cuba and Camagüey are also important cities. The Republic of Cuba has an official territory of 109,884 km2. With a surface area of 104,556 km2, Cuba's main island is the largest in the country and the Caribbean. With over 11 million people, Cuba is the second-most populated country in the Caribbean after Haiti. The Ciboney Tano people occupied the area that is now Cuba from the 4th millennium BC until Spanish colonization in the 15th century. Cuba was a Spanish colony from the 15th century until the Spanish–American War of 1898, when it was conquered by the United States and granted nominal independence as a de factocode: lat protectorate in 1902. Cuba attempted to consolidate its democratic regime in 1940 as a fragile republic, but rising political radicalization and civil unrest resulted in a coup and eventual dictatorship under Fulgencio Batista in 1952. Under Batista's rule, open corruption and injustice led to his overthrow in January 1959 by the 26th of July Movement, which later established communist rule under Fidel Castro's leadership. The Communist Party of Cuba has ruled the country since 1965. During the Cold War, the nation was a point of contention between the Soviet Union and the United States, and a nuclear war was nearly triggered during the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis. Cuba is one of the few remaining Marxist–Leninist socialist states with a Constitution that recognizes the position of the vanguard Communist Party. Cuba was active in a wide variety of military and humanitarian operations in Africa and Asia under Castro's leadership. Cuba is culturally part of Latin America. It is a multiethnic nation whose people, history, and traditions stem from a variety of sources, including the Tano Ciboney cultures, Spanish colonialism, the arrival of enslaved Africans, and a Cold War-era close association with the Soviet Union. Cuba is a member of the United Nations, the Group of 77, the Non-Aligned Movement, the Organization of African, Caribbean, and Pacific States, ALBA, and the Organization of American States. It has one of the world's only planned economies, with the tourism industry and exports of skilled labor, sugar, tobacco, and coffee dominating the economy. According to the Human Development Index, Cuba has a high level of human development, ranking eighth in North America and 72nd globally in 2019.