Colombia, formally the Republic of Colombia, is a South American country with North American territories. The Caribbean Sea borders it on the north, Panama on the northwest, Ecuador and Peru on the south, Venezuela on the east, Brazil on the southeast, and the Pacific Ocean on the west. Colombia is divided into 32 departments, with Bogotá as the capital and largest district. It has a population of 50 million people and occupies an area of 1,418,748 square kilometers. Colombian culture is influenced by the country's diverse communities of Amerindians, Europeans, Middle Easterners, and Africans. The official language of the country is Spanish, but it is also spoken in over 70 other languages. Since at least 12,000 BCE, Colombia has been home to a variety of indigenous peoples, including the Muisca, Quimbaya, and Tairona. The Spanish arrived in La Guajira in 1499 and colonized parts of the area by the mid-16th century, founding the New Kingdom of Granada with Santafé de Bogotá as its capital. In 1810, the United Provinces of New Granada declared independence from the Spanish Empire, forming what is now Colombia. Before declaring the Republic of Colombia in 1886, the new country experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation and then the United States of Colombia. In 1903, Panama seceded, resulting in Colombia's current boundaries. The nation has been plagued by asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict and political violence since the 1960s, which worsened in the 1990s. Colombia has experienced unparalleled economic growth and development since 2005, with substantial improvements in security, stability, and rule of law. Colombia is one of the world's seventeen megadiverse nations, with the second-highest level of biodiversity. It is the only nation in South America with coastlines and islands on both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and its territory includes Amazon rainforest, highlands, grasslands, and deserts. Colombia is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the OECD, the Organization of American States, the Pacific Alliance, the Andean Community, and is a NATO Global Partner. It has the third-largest economy in South America, with macroeconomic stability and promising long-term growth prospects.