Central Africa's Central African Republic is a landlocked territory. It is bordered on the north by Chad, on the northeast by Sudan, on the southeast by South Sudan, on the south by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, on the southwest by the Republic of the Congo, and on the west by Cameroon. The CAR has a land area of approximately 620,000 square kilometers and a population of approximately 4.7 million people as of 2018. The CAR has been engulfed in civil war since 2012, with the majority of the country consisting of Sudano-Guinean savannas, but it also contains a Sahelo-Sudanese region in the north and an equatorial forest zone in the south. The Ubangi River basin encompasses two-thirds of the region, while the Chari River basin, which flows into Lake Chad, encompasses the remaining portion. Despite the fact that what is now the Central African Republic has been occupied for centuries, the country's current boundaries were formed by France, which ruled the country as a colony beginning in the late nineteenth century. The Central African Republic was governed by a succession of autocratic leaders after winning independence from France in 1960, including an abortive attempt at monarchy; by the 1990s, demands for democracy led to the first multi-party democratic elections in 1993. Ange-Félix Patassé was elected president, but was deposed in a coup in 2003 by General François Bozizé. The Bush War in the Central African Republic started in 2004, and after peace treaties in 2007 and 2011, the civil war resumed in 2012, perpetuating the country's poor human rights record, which is marked by widespread and growing violations by various participating armed groups, such as illegal detention, torture, and restrictions on freedom of the press and movement. Despite having major mineral deposits and other resources such as uranium reserves, crude oil, gold, diamonds, cobalt, timber, and hydropower, as well as large amounts of arable land, the Central African Republic is one of the world's poorest nations, with the lowest GDP per capita at purchasing power parity in 2017. The nation had the second-lowest level of human development in 2019, ranking 188th out of 189 countries, and the lowest inequality-adjusted Human Development Index, ranking 150th out of 150 countries, according to the Human Development Index. It is often regarded as the unhealthiest and most dangerous country in which to grow up. The Central African Republic is a member of the UN, African Union, Economic Community of Central African States, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, and Non-Aligned Movement.