Burkina Faso is a landlocked nation in West Africa with borders to Mali to the northwest, Niger to the northeast, Benin to the southeast, Togo and Ghana to the south, and the Ivory Coast to the southwest. It is bordered by Mali to the northwest, Niger to the northeast, Benin to the southeast, Togo and Ghana to the south, and the Ivory Coast to the southwest. The United Nations estimated the population to be 20,321,378 in July 2019. President Thomas Sankara renamed the country "Burkina Faso" on August 4, 1984, after it was previously known as the Republic of Upper Volta. Burkinabé or Burkinabè is the name given to its people, and Ouagadougou is the capital. The country's official language of government and industry is French, thanks to French colonialism. Only 15% of the population, on the other hand, speaks French on a daily basis. The Republic of Upper Volta was established on December 11, 1958, as a self-governing colony within the French Community, and gained full independence on August 5, 1960, with Maurice Yaméogo as President. Following student and labor union demonstrations, Yaméogo was deposed in a 1966 coup led by Sangoulé Lamizana, who went on to become president. He was deposed in the 1980 coup d'état led by Saye Zerbo, which coincided with the Sahel drought and famine, and he faced problems from the country's trade unions. Zerbo's government was overthrown in the 1982 coup d'état led by Jean-Baptiste Ouédraogo, after again encountering trade union opposition. Thomas Sankara, the leader of Ouédraogo's leftist party, was appointed Prime Minister but later imprisoned. Efforts to free him resulted in a coup d'état in 1983, after which he was elected president. Sankara renamed the country Burkina Faso and embarked on a massive developmental program that included a national literacy drive, land redistribution to peasants, railway and road building, and the outlawing of female genital mutilation, forced marriages, and polygamy. Sankara was deposed and killed in a coup led by Blaise Compaoré in 1987, ostensibly because of worsening ties with former colonizer France and its ally, the Ivory Coast. Blaise Compaoré was elected president in 1987, and after an alleged coup attempt in 1989, he was re-elected in 1991 and 1998, elections that were boycotted by the opposition and had a poor turnout, as well as in 2005. He remained the head of state until the popular youth uprising of October 31, 2014, when he was deposed and exiled to the Ivory Coast. Following that, Michel Kafando was named as the country's interim president. The Regiment of Presidential Security, the former presidential guard of Compaoré, staged a military coup against the Kafando government on September 16, 2015. The military junta decided to step down on September 24, 2015, after pressure from the African Union, ECOWAS, and the armed forces, and Michel Kafando was reinstated as acting president.