Belarus is a landlocked nation in Eastern Europe, officially known as the Republic of Belarus. It is bordered on the east and northeast by Russia, on the south by Ukraine, on the west by Poland, and on the northwest by Lithuania and Latvia. Belarus is the thirteenth-largest and twentieth-most populous country in Europe, with a land area of 207,600 square kilometers and a population of 9.4 million people. The country is divided into seven administrative regions. The capital and biggest city is Minsk. Until the twentieth century, numerous states, including Kievan Rus', the Principality of Polotsk, the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, and the Russian Empire, dominated the lands of modern-day Belarus. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, various states emerged, vying for legitimacy in the midst of the Civil War, eventually leading to the rise of the Byelorussian SSR, which became a founding constituent republic of the Soviet Union in 1922. Belarus lost almost half of its territories to Poland during the Polish-Soviet War. After the Soviet invasion of Poland in 1939, some lands of the Second Polish Republic were reintegrated into Belarus, and the boundaries were finalized after World War II. During WWII, military operations ravaged Belarus, which lost roughly a quarter of its population and half of its economic capital. In the postwar years, the republic was redeveloped. Along with the Soviet Union, the Byelorussian SSR became a founding member of the United Nations in 1945. On July 27, 1990, the republic's parliament declared Belarus' sovereignty, and Belarus declared independence on August 25, 1991, after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Following the adoption of a new constitution in 1994, Alexander Lukashenko was elected president of Belarus in the country's first and only free election since independence, and has held the position ever since. Human rights organizations consider Lukashenko's government to be oppressive and the country's human rights to be weak. Belarus is the only country in Europe that uses the death penalty on a regular basis. Lukashenko kept a variety of policies from the Soviet period, such as state control of large parts of the economy. Belarus and Russia formed the Union State in 2000 after signing a treaty for greater cooperation. Belarus is a developing nation with a high Human Development Index score. It has been a member of the United Nations since its inception, as well as the CIS, the CSTO, the EAEU, and the Non-Aligned Movement. Although it has expressed no desire to join the European Union, it maintains a bilateral relationship with it and participates in two EU projects: the Eastern Partnership and the Baku Initiative.