Bangladesh is a country in South Asia that is formally known as the People's Republic of Bangladesh. It is the world's eighth most populous country, with a population of more than 163 million people living in an area of 147,570 square kilometers, making it one of the world's most densely populated countries. Bangladesh is bordered on the west, north, and east by India, on the southeast by Myanmar, and on the south by the Bay of Bengal. In the north, the Siliguri Corridor separates it from Nepal and Bhutan, and the Siliguri Corridor separates it from China. Dhaka, the country's capital and largest city, serves as the country's economic, political, and cultural nerve center. The second-largest city is Chittagong, which is also the country's largest seaport. Bangladesh is the easternmost and largest country in the Bengal region. The Vanga Kingdom, one of the namesakes of the Bengal region, was a powerful naval force, according to the ancient Indian texts Rmyana and Mahbhrata. The Pundra, Gangaridai, Gauda, Samatata, and Harikela were among the principalities that ruled the Indian subcontinent during the ancient and classical times. It was also a Mauryan province during Ashoka's rule. The principalities were known for their overseas trade, connections with the Roman world, fine muslin and silk export to the Middle East, and the dissemination of philosophy and art to Southeast Asia. The last pre-Islamic Bengali middle kingdoms were the Gupta Empire, Pala Empire, Chandra dynasty, and Sena dynasty. Islam was introduced during the Pala Empire through trade with the Abbsid Caliphate, but it spread throughout the entire region after the Ghurid conquests led by Bakhtiyr Khalj, the establishment of the Delhi Sultanate, and the preaching of Shah Jall in the north-east. The Mughal Empire conquered the powerful Bengal Sultanate in 1576, but its reign was briefly disrupted by the Sr Empire. Mughal Bengal, which accounted for 12% of global GDP, ushered in proto-industrialization, showed signs of a potential Industrial Revolution, developed trade ties with the Dutch and English East India Companies, and served as the backdrop to the Anglo-Mughal War. The area became a semi-independent state under the Nawabs of Bengal after Emperor Aurangzb lamgir and Governor Shista Khn died in the early 1700s. The last Nawab of Bengal, Sirj ud-Daulah, was defeated by the British East India Company at the Battle of Plassey in 1757, and the entire area fell under Company rule by 1793. Following the fall of the British Bengal Presidency, the boundaries of modern Bangladesh were formed with the partition of Bengal in August 1947, when the region became East Pakistan as a province of India. Later, Bengali nationalism and self-determination fueled a pro-democracy movement that culminated in the Liberation War and the establishment of Bangladesh as a sovereign and independent nation in 1971.