Albania is a country in Southeastern Europe, officially known as the Republic of Albania. It shares land boundaries with Montenegro to the northwest, Kosovo to the northeast, North Macedonia to the east, and Greece to the south, as well as maritime borders with Greece, Montenegro, and Italy on the Mediterranean Sea's Adriatic and Ionian Seas. The capital and largest city is Tirana, which is followed by Durrs, Vlor, and Shkodr. Albania, with a land area of 28,748 km2, has a diverse range of climatic, geographical, hydrological, and morphological conditions. It has a diverse landscape, ranging from the snow-capped mountains of the Albanian Alps, as well as the Korab, Skanderbeg, Pindus, and Ceraunian Mountains, to the hot and sunny Adriatic and Ionian Sea coasts along the Mediterranean Sea. Many civilisations have lived in Albania throughout history, including the Illyrians, Thracians, Ancient Greeks, Romans, Byzantines, Venetians, and Ottomans. In the 12th century, Albanians founded the autonomous Principality of Arbr. Between the 13th and 14th centuries, the Kingdom of Albania and the Principality of Albania arose. Prior to the Ottoman conquest of Albania in the 15th century, Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg's Albanian resistance to Ottoman expansion into Europe earned them acclaim throughout Europe. Cultural transformations between the 18th and 19th centuries, generally attributed to Albanians' spiritual and intellectual power, conclusively contributed to the Albanian Renaissance. In 1912, the new nation state of Albania proclaimed independence after defeating the Ottomans in the Balkan Wars. The Kingdom of Albania was invaded by Italy in the twentieth century, which created Greater Albania before becoming a protectorate of Nazi Germany. After World War II, Enver Hoxha founded the People's Socialist Republic of Albania, which was modeled after Hoxhaism. The 1991 Revolutions resulted in the demise of communism in Albania and the founding of the current Republic of Albania. Albania is a developing country with an upper-middle income economy dominated by the service sector, followed by manufacturing. It is a unitary parliamentary federal republic with a developing economy. Following the fall of communism in 1990, it underwent a transformation from authoritarian planning to a market-based economy. Albanian residents have access to universal health care and free primary and secondary education. Albania is a member of the United Nations, the World Bank, UNESCO, NATO, the World Trade Organization, the Council of Europe, the OSCE, and the Organization of Islamic Cooperation. It is an approved applicant for European Union membership. It, along with the Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation and the Union for the Mediterranean, is a founding member of the Energy Community.